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MeSH Review

Central Nervous System Diseases

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Disease relevance of Central Nervous System Diseases

  • Vasopressin (ADH) was measured in CSF and plasma in 75 evaluable patients with known or suspected CNS metastases from small-cell bronchogenic carcinoma (SCBC), and in 66 control patients having neither malignant disease nor organic CNS disease [1].
  • Cryostat sections of central nervous system (CNS) tissues of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and other CNS diseases were stained with antibodies to fibronectin, a macrophage fibronectin receptor component, fibrin/fibrinogen, and albumin using immunoperoxidase [2].
  • RESULTS: In the group of lupus patients with CNS involvement, intrathecal levels of NFL and GFAP were increased an average of 7-fold (P </= 0.0001) and 3-fold (P </= 0.05), respectively, compared with the levels in SLE patients without overt CNS disease [3].
  • These results demonstrate that the severity of CNS disease can be reduced through the use of a neutralizing mAb directed against CCL5 in a viral model of demyelination [4].
  • The lack of neuronal HSP72 expression in this model suggests that at least some of the events leading to neuronal injury in meningitis are unique, when compared with CNS diseases associated with HSP72 induction [5].

Psychiatry related information on Central Nervous System Diseases


High impact information on Central Nervous System Diseases


Chemical compound and disease context of Central Nervous System Diseases


Biological context of Central Nervous System Diseases


Anatomical context of Central Nervous System Diseases

  • Major illnesses presenting with psychiatric symptoms in order of frequency were infectious, pulmonary, thyroid, diabetic, hematopoietic, hepatic and CNS diseases [22].
  • In order to determine whether patients with active CNS-SS have cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormalities indicative of CNS inflammation, CSF analyses from 30 patients with active CNS-SS (SSA) were contrasted with those from 20 SS patients without CNS involvement (SSI) and 20 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and active CNS disease (SLEA) [23].
  • TNFR1 signalling is critical for the development of demyelination and the limitation of T-cell responses during immune-mediated CNS disease [24].
  • It is known that there is restricted clonality of the B-cell immunoglobulin response in the CSF compartment with inflammatory CNS diseases, and with infections the majority of these so-called oligoclonal antibodies are directed against the exciting antigen and are synthesized in the CNS [25].
  • These results suggest that the envelope protein of CasBrE is not itself neurotoxic but that virus infectious events beyond binding and fusion in microglia are necessary for the induction of CNS disease [26].

Gene context of Central Nervous System Diseases

  • Thus, TGF-beta1 may exert a protective role in CNS diseases characterized by microglial cell activation by proinflammatory stimulants [27].
  • In this review, we focus on the biological functions of OSM, the signaling pathways of OSM in the CNS, and OSM involvement in CNS diseases [28].
  • This shift from classically neuroprotective to neurodegenerative MAPK pathways suggests that agents that inhibit activation of JNK/p38 may be protective against HIV-associated CNS disease [29].
  • First, we note that purified recombinant MOBP inoculated into SJL/J mice produces CNS disease [30].
  • Further, it is possible that an as yet unidentified cell found more abundantly in LT-alpha -/- than in LT-beta -/- mice may assist in the amplification of scrapie infection in the periphery and favor susceptibility to CNS disease following peripheral routes of infection [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Central Nervous System Diseases


  1. Cerebrospinal fluid vasopressin as a marker of central nervous system metastases from small-cell bronchogenic carcinoma. Pedersen, A.G., Hammer, M., Hansen, M., Sørensen, P.S. J. Clin. Oncol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Fibronectin in multiple sclerosis lesions. Sobel, R.A., Mitchell, M.E. Am. J. Pathol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Neuronal and astrocytic damage in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with central nervous system involvement. Trysberg, E., Nylen, K., Rosengren, L.E., Tarkowski, A. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Antibody targeting of the CC chemokine ligand 5 results in diminished leukocyte infiltration into the central nervous system and reduced neurologic disease in a viral model of multiple sclerosis. Glass, W.G., Hickey, M.J., Hardison, J.L., Liu, M.T., Manning, J.E., Lane, T.E. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Experimental pneumococcal meningitis causes central nervous system pathology without inducing the 72-kd heat shock protein. Täuber, M.G., Kennedy, S.L., Tureen, J.H., Lowenstein, D.H. Am. J. Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Elevated homocysteine levels in young male patients with schizophrenia. Levine, J., Stahl, Z., Sela, B.A., Gavendo, S., Ruderman, V., Belmaker, R.H. The American journal of psychiatry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and neurological disorders in HIV infection. Mastroianni, C.M., Paoletti, F., Valenti, C., Vullo, V., Jirillo, E., Delia, S. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Deaths in connection with chlormethiazole (heminevrin) therapy. Pentikäinen, P.J., Valtonen, V.V., Miettinen, T.A. International journal of clinical pharmacology and biopharmacy. (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. CNTF is a major protective factor in demyelinating CNS disease: a neurotrophic cytokine as modulator in neuroinflammation. Linker, R.A., Mäurer, M., Gaupp, S., Martini, R., Holtmann, B., Giess, R., Rieckmann, P., Lassmann, H., Toyka, K.V., Sendtner, M., Gold, R. Nat. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Oligodendrocytes from forebrain are highly vulnerable to AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. McDonald, J.W., Althomsons, S.P., Hyrc, K.L., Choi, D.W., Goldberg, M.P. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Consequences of cytotoxic T lymphocyte interaction with major histocompatibility complex class I-expressing neurons in vivo. Rall, G.F., Mucke, L., Oldstone, M.B. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Brain-reactive lymphocytotoxic antibodies in the serum of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Bluestein, H.G., Zvaifler, N.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Is "cerebral hyponatraemia" iatrogenic? Bouzarth, W.F., Shenkin, H.A. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  14. Exclusive tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling by the p75TNF receptor triggers inflammatory ischemia in the CNS of transgenic mice. Akassoglou, K., Douni, E., Bauer, J., Lassmann, H., Kollias, G., Probert, L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. An effective therapy for both undifferentiated (including Burkitt's) lymphomas and lymphoblastic lymphomas in children and young adults. Magrath, I.T., Janus, C., Edwards, B.K., Spiegel, R., Jaffe, E.S., Berard, C.W., Miliauskas, J., Morris, K., Barnwell, R. Blood (1984) [Pubmed]
  16. Generalized CNS disease and massive GM1-ganglioside accumulation in mice defective in lysosomal acid beta-galactosidase. Hahn, C.N., del Pilar Martin, M., Schröder, M., Vanier, M.T., Hara, Y., Suzuki, K., Suzuki, K., d'Azzo, A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Clinical and neuroinflammatory responses to meningoencephalitis in substance P receptor knockout mice. Kennedy, P.G., Rodgers, J., Bradley, B., Hunt, S.P., Gettinby, G., Leeman, S.E., de Felipe, C., Murray, M. Brain (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Differences in cytokine and chemokine responses during neurological disease induced by polytropic murine retroviruses Map to separate regions of the viral envelope gene. Peterson, K.E., Robertson, S.J., Portis, J.L., Chesebro, B. J. Virol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. How special is a pathogenic CNS autoantigen? Immunization to many CNS self-antigens does not induce autoimmune disease. Mor, F., Cohen, I.R. J. Neuroimmunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Astroglial overproduction of TGF-beta 1 enhances inflammatory central nervous system disease in transgenic mice . Wyss-Coray, T., Borrow, P., Brooker, M.J., Mucke, L. J. Neuroimmunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Virus encoding an encephalitogenic peptide protects mice from experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Barnett, L.A., Whitton, J.L., Wang, L.Y., Fujinami, R.S. J. Neuroimmunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Physical illness presenting as psychiatric disease. Hall, R.C., Popkin, M.K., Devaul, R.A., Faillace, L.A., Stickney, S.K. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1978) [Pubmed]
  23. Evidence of an immunopathogenic basis for central nervous system disease in primary Sjögren's syndrome. Alexander, E.L., Lijewski, J.E., Jerdan, M.S., Alexander, G.E. Arthritis Rheum. (1986) [Pubmed]
  24. TNFR1 signalling is critical for the development of demyelination and the limitation of T-cell responses during immune-mediated CNS disease. Probert, L., Eugster, H.P., Akassoglou, K., Bauer, J., Frei, K., Lassmann, H., Fontana, A. Brain (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. T cells in multiple sclerosis and inflammatory central nervous system diseases. Hafler, D.A., Weiner, H.L. Immunol. Rev. (1987) [Pubmed]
  26. Late virus replication events in microglia are required for neurovirulent retrovirus-induced spongiform neurodegeneration: evidence from neural progenitor-derived chimeric mouse brains. Lynch, W.P., Snyder, E.Y., Qualtiere, L., Portis, J.L., Sharpe, A.H. J. Virol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  27. TGF-beta1 disrupts endotoxin signaling in microglial cells through Smad3 and MAPK pathways. Le, Y., Iribarren, P., Gong, W., Cui, Y., Zhang, X., Wang, J.M. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Oncostatin M: a pleiotropic cytokine in the central nervous system. Chen, S.H., Benveniste, E.N. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Dysregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in simian immunodeficiency virus encephalitis. Barber, S.A., Uhrlaub, J.L., DeWitt, J.B., Tarwater, P.M., Zink, M.C. Am. J. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Myelin-associated oligodendrocytic basic protein: identification of an encephalitogenic epitope and association with multiple sclerosis. Holz, A., Bielekova, B., Martin, R., Oldstone, M.B. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Lymphotoxin-alpha- and lymphotoxin-beta-deficient mice differ in susceptibility to scrapie: evidence against dendritic cell involvement in neuroinvasion. Oldstone, M.B., Race, R., Thomas, D., Lewicki, H., Homann, D., Smelt, S., Holz, A., Koni, P., Lo, D., Chesebro, B., Flavell, R. J. Virol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy abrogates autoimmune demyelination. Selmaj, K., Raine, C.S., Cross, A.H. Ann. Neurol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. PCR detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of Lyme neuroborreliosis patients. Keller, T.L., Halperin, J.J., Whitman, M. Neurology (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Rochalimaea antibodies in HIV-associated neurologic disease. Schwartzman, W.A., Patnaik, M., Barka, N.E., Peter, J.B. Neurology (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Intensive high-dose asparaginase consolidation improves survival for pediatric patients with T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and advanced stage lymphoblastic lymphoma: a Pediatric Oncology Group study. Amylon, M.D., Shuster, J., Pullen, J., Berard, C., Link, M.P., Wharam, M., Katz, J., Yu, A., Laver, J., Ravindranath, Y., Kurtzberg, J., Desai, S., Camitta, B., Murphy, S.B. Leukemia (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. The SIV-infected rhesus monkey model for HIV-associated dementia and implications for neurological diseases. Rausch, D.M., Murray, E.A., Eiden, L.E. J. Leukoc. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
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