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Gene Review

HBVgp1  -  Polymerase

Hepatitis B virus

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Disease relevance of HBVgp1

  • The 87 nucleotides in the precore region of the hepatitis B virus were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and then directly sequenced [1].
  • METHODS: With the polymerase chain reaction, we searched for HBV DNA in liver and serum samples from 200 HBsAg-negative patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease (147 with chronic hepatitis, 48 with cirrhosis, and 5 with minimal histologic changes) [2].
  • Efforts to examine the biochemical mechanism for viral DNA synthesis have been hampered by the failure to solubilize the reverse transcriptase from virions and to express the polymerase in heterologous systems in an enzymatically active form [3].
  • In retroviruses and retrotransposons it is expressed as a nucleocapsid-polymerase fusion protein by ribosomal frameshifting during translation of the overlapping region [4].
  • After receiving lamivudine for 3 years to treat chronic hepatitis B, 67-75% of patients develop B-domain L528M, C-domain M552I, or M552V mutations in the HBV polymerase that render hepatitis B virus (HBV) drug-resistant [5].

Psychiatry related information on HBVgp1


High impact information on HBVgp1


Chemical compound and disease context of HBVgp1


Biological context of HBVgp1


Anatomical context of HBVgp1

  • Furthermore, CD4+ T cells from donor/recipient pairs recognized similar epitopes on hepatitis B core antigen; using polymerase chain reaction for the Y chromosome, the recipients' CD4+ T lymphocytes were confirmed to be of donor origin [20].
  • Together, these results demonstrate that the HBV X protein up-regulates RNA Pol I-dependent promoters via a Ras-activated pathway in two distinct cell lines [21].
  • A second RNA polymerase II promoter preceding the HBcAg gene was also active in the cell-free system [22].
  • We used an anchor polymerase chain reaction method to compare the repertoires of transcribed T-cell receptor beta chain variable region (V beta) genes in cord blood T cells from neonates of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive (n = 40) and HBsAg negative (n = 40) women [23].
  • Mimicry between the hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase and the antigenic targets of nuclear and smooth muscle antibodies in chronic hepatitis B virus infection [24].

Associations of HBVgp1 with chemical compounds

  • FINDINGS: DNA sequencing showed a common mutation within the YMDD locus of the HBV polymerase gene in all patients during lamivudine treatment [25].
  • Comparison of pretreatment and posttreatment HBV DNA by polymerase chain reaction sequencing identified a novel asparagine to threonine mutation at residue rt236 in domain D of the HBV polymerase [9].
  • This interaction, in turn, activates the reverse transcription reaction, which is primed by a tyrosine residue on the polymerase [26].
  • These findings indicate that a prolonged administration of famciclovir may allow for the selection of HBV polymerase gene mutants in immune competent patients [13].
  • HBV DNA polymerase mutants M552I, M552V, and L528M/M552V showed resistance to lamivudine triphosphate with inhibition constants (Ki) increased by 8.0-fold, 19.6-fold, and 25.2-fold compared with that of wild-type HBV DNA polymerase [27].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of HBVgp1


  1. Mutations in the precore region of hepatitis B virus DNA in patients with fulminant and severe hepatitis. Omata, M., Ehata, T., Yokosuka, O., Hosoda, K., Ohto, M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C liver disease. Cacciola, I., Pollicino, T., Squadrito, G., Cerenzia, G., Orlando, M.E., Raimondo, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. The reverse transcriptase of hepatitis B virus acts as a protein primer for viral DNA synthesis. Wang, G.H., Seeger, C. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Biosynthesis of the reverse transcriptase of hepatitis B viruses involves de novo translational initiation not ribosomal frameshifting. Chang, L.J., Pryciak, P., Ganem, D., Varmus, H.E. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. The polymerase L528M mutation cooperates with nucleotide binding-site mutations, increasing hepatitis B virus replication and drug resistance. Ono, S.K., Kato, N., Shiratori, Y., Kato, J., Goto, T., Schinazi, R.F., Carrilho, F.J., Omata, M. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of hepatitis B virus DNA in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded liver biopsies from alcoholics using a simplified and standardized amplification protocol. von Weizsäcker, F., Blum, H.E., Wands, J.R. J. Hepatol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to multiple hepatitis B virus polymerase epitopes during and after acute viral hepatitis. Rehermann, B., Fowler, P., Sidney, J., Person, J., Redeker, A., Brown, M., Moss, B., Sette, A., Chisari, F.V. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. In vivo expression of a new hepatitis B virus protein encoded by a spliced RNA. Soussan, P., Garreau, F., Zylberberg, H., Ferray, C., Brechot, C., Kremsdorf, D. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Resistance to adefovir dipivoxil therapy associated with the selection of a novel mutation in the HBV polymerase. Angus, P., Vaughan, R., Xiong, S., Yang, H., Delaney, W., Gibbs, C., Brosgart, C., Colledge, D., Edwards, R., Ayres, A., Bartholomeusz, A., Locarnini, S. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of immunosuppressive therapy on viral markers in chronic active hepatitis B. Scullard, G.H., Smith, C.I., Merigan, T.C., Robinson, W.S., Gregory, P.B. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Inhibition of duck hepatitis B virus replication by 2',3'-dideoxycytidine. A potent inhibitor of reverse transcriptase. Kassianides, C., Hoofnagle, J.H., Miller, R.H., Doo, E., Ford, H., Broder, S., Mitsuya, H. Gastroenterology (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Selection of hepatitis B virus polymerase mutations in HIV-coinfected patients treated with tenofovir. Sheldon, J., Camino, N., Rodés, B., Bartholomeusz, A., Kuiper, M., Tacke, F., Núñez, M., Mauss, S., Lutz, T., Klausen, G., Locarnini, S., Soriano, V. Antivir. Ther. (Lond.) (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Transient selection of a hepatitis B virus polymerase gene mutant associated with a decreased replication capacity and famciclovir resistance. Pichoud, C., Seignères, B., Wang, Z., Trépo, C., Zoulim, F. Hepatology (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Mutation in HBV RNA-dependent DNA polymerase confers resistance to lamivudine in vivo. Tipples, G.A., Ma, M.M., Fischer, K.P., Bain, V.G., Kneteman, N.M., Tyrrell, D.L. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Uncommon mutation pattern of a hepatitis B virus isolate from genotype F infecting a patient with AIDS. Gomes, S.A., de Castro, L., Niel, C., Santos, E.A. J. Infect. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Integrator enzyme hypothesis for replication of hepatitis-B virus. Hirschman, S.Z. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. Precore/core mutations of hepatitis B virus in hepatocellular carcinomas developed on noncirrhotic livers. Minami, M., Poussin, K., Kew, M., Okanoue, T., Bréchot, C., Paterlini, P. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Posttransfusion hepatitis revisited by hepatitis C antibody assays and polymerase chain reaction. Wang, J.T., Wang, T.H., Sheu, J.C., Lin, J.T., Wang, C.Y., Chen, D.S. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Hepatitis B virus core promoter sequence analysis in fulminant and chronic hepatitis B. Laskus, T., Rakela, J., Nowicki, M.J., Persing, D.H. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Resolution of chronic hepatitis B and anti-HBs seroconversion in humans by adoptive transfer of immunity to hepatitis B core antigen. Lau, G.K., Suri, D., Liang, R., Rigopoulou, E.I., Thomas, M.G., Mullerova, I., Nanji, A., Yuen, S.T., Williams, R., Naoumov, N.V. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Regulation of RNA polymerase I-dependent promoters by the hepatitis B virus X protein via activated Ras and TATA-binding protein. Wang, H.D., Trivedi, A., Johnson, D.L. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Transcription of hepatitis B virus by RNA polymerase II. Rall, L.B., Standring, D.N., Laub, O., Rutter, W.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  23. The influence of a maternal chronic hepatitis B virus infection on the repertoire of transcribed T-cell receptor beta chain variable region genes in human cord blood. Abbott, W.G., Geursen, A., Fraser, J.D., Marbrook, J., Skinner, M.A., Tan, P.L. Hepatology (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Mimicry between the hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase and the antigenic targets of nuclear and smooth muscle antibodies in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Gregorio, G.V., Choudhuri, K., Ma, Y., Vegnente, A., Mieli-Vergani, G., Vergani, D. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Hepatitis-B-virus resistance to lamivudine given for recurrent infection after orthotopic liver transplantation. Bartholomew, M.M., Jansen, R.W., Jeffers, L.J., Reddy, K.R., Johnson, L.C., Bunzendahl, H., Condreay, L.D., Tzakis, A.G., Schiff, E.R., Brown, N.A. Lancet (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Hepadnavirus assembly and reverse transcription require a multi-component chaperone complex which is incorporated into nucleocapsids. Hu, J., Toft, D.O., Seeger, C. EMBO J. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Mutations in hepatitis B DNA polymerase associated with resistance to lamivudine do not confer resistance to adefovir in vitro. Xiong, X., Flores, C., Yang, H., Toole, J.J., Gibbs, C.S. Hepatology (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Selection of hepatitis B virus polymerase mutants with enhanced replication by lamivudine treatment after liver transplantation. Bock, C.T., Tillmann, H.L., Torresi, J., Klempnauer, J., Locarnini, S., Manns, M.P., Trautwein, C. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  29. Redevelopment of hepatitis B surface antigen after renal transplantation. Marcellin, P., Giostra, E., Martinot-Peignoux, M., Loriot, M.A., Jaegle, M.L., Wolf, P., Degott, C., Degos, F., Benhamou, J.P. Gastroenterology (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Markedly prolonged incubation period of hepatitis B in a chimpanzee passively immunized with a human monoclonal antibody to the a determinant of hepatitis B surface antigen. Ogata, N., Ostberg, L., Ehrlich, P.H., Wong, D.C., Miller, R.H., Purcell, R.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. The natural course of chronic hepatitis C. Iwarson, S. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (1994) [Pubmed]
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