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Gene Review

Hmgb1  -  high mobility group box 1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: DEF, HMG-1, High mobility group protein 1, High mobility group protein B1, Hmg-1, ...
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Disease relevance of Hmgb1


High impact information on Hmgb1

  • The lack of chromosomal protein Hmg1 does not disrupt cell growth but causes lethal hypoglycaemia in newborn mice [4].
  • Thus, Hmg1 is not essential for the overall organization of chromatin in the cell nucleus, but is critical for proper transcriptional control by specific transcription factors [4].
  • Hmg1-deficient mice survive for several days if given glucose parenterally, then waste away with pleiotropic defects (but no alteration in the immune repertoire) [4].
  • Lymphoid-specific cDNA clones were isolated that encode a nuclear protein with homology to the chromosomal nonhistone protein HMG-1 and to putative regulators of cell specialization, including the mammalian testis-determining factor SRY and fungal mating-type proteins [5].
  • Role of HMGB1 in apoptosis-mediated sepsis lethality [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of Hmgb1


Biological context of Hmgb1


Anatomical context of Hmgb1


Associations of Hmgb1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Hmgb1


Regulatory relationships of Hmgb1


Other interactions of Hmgb1

  • Together, these results demonstrate that HMGB1 is an early mediator of injury and inflammation in liver I/R and implicates TLR4 as one of the receptors that is involved in the process [1].
  • Mphi from RAGE-/- mice produced significantly lower amounts of TNF, IL-1beta and IL-6, while IL-1RI-/- and TLR2-/- Mphi produced cytokine levels comparable with wildtype controls in response to HMGB1 stimulation [14].
  • Mphi from interleukin (IL)-1 receptor type I-/-, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2-/-) and RAGE-/- mice were used to investigate the role of these receptors in HMGB1 signalling [14].
  • CLEBP-1 and closely related HMG-1 and HMG-2 proteins may play key roles in facilitating the expression of the lymphokine genes that contain CLE0 elements [27].
  • In the present experiments, we explored the role of RAGE, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, and TLR 4, as well as associated kinases, in HMGB1-induced cellular activation [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hmgb1


  1. The nuclear factor HMGB1 mediates hepatic injury after murine liver ischemia-reperfusion. Tsung, A., Sahai, R., Tanaka, H., Nakao, A., Fink, M.P., Lotze, M.T., Yang, H., Li, J., Tracey, K.J., Geller, D.A., Billiar, T.R. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. HMGB1 contributes to the development of acute lung injury after hemorrhage. Kim, J.Y., Park, J.S., Strassheim, D., Douglas, I., Diaz del Valle, F., Asehnoune, K., Mitra, S., Kwak, S.H., Yamada, S., Maruyama, I., Ishizaka, A., Abraham, E. Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. HMGB-1, a DNA-binding protein with cytokine activity, induces brain TNF and IL-6 production, and mediates anorexia and taste aversion. Agnello, D., Wang, H., Yang, H., Tracey, K.J., Ghezzi, P. Cytokine (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. The lack of chromosomal protein Hmg1 does not disrupt cell growth but causes lethal hypoglycaemia in newborn mice. Calogero, S., Grassi, F., Aguzzi, A., Voigtländer, T., Ferrier, P., Ferrari, S., Bianchi, M.E. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. LEF-1, a gene encoding a lymphoid-specific protein with an HMG domain, regulates T-cell receptor alpha enhancer function [corrected]. Travis, A., Amsterdam, A., Belanger, C., Grosschedl, R. Genes Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Role of HMGB1 in apoptosis-mediated sepsis lethality. Qin, S., Wang, H., Yuan, R., Li, H., Ochani, M., Ochani, K., Rosas-Ballina, M., Czura, C.J., Huston, J.M., Miller, E., Lin, X., Sherry, B., Kumar, A., Larosa, G., Newman, W., Tracey, K.J., Yang, H. J. Exp. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Selection of a cDNA clone for chicken high-mobility-group 1 (HMG1) protein through its unusually conserved 3'-untranslated region, and improved expression of recombinant HMG1 in Escherichia coli. Lee, K.B., Brooks, D.J., Thomas, J.O. Gene (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Interaction of the mouse chromosomal protein HMG-I with the 3' ends of genes in vitro. Russnak, R.H., Candido, E.P., Astell, C.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. HMGB1, a novel cytokine-like mediator linking acute neuronal death and delayed neuroinflammation in the postischemic brain. Kim, J.B., Sig Choi, J., Yu, Y.M., Nam, K., Piao, C.S., Kim, S.W., Lee, M.H., Han, P.L., Park, J.S., Lee, J.K. J. Neurosci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Yeast Nhp6A/B and mammalian Hmgb1 facilitate the maintenance of genome stability. Giavara, S., Kosmidou, E., Hande, M.P., Bianchi, M.E., Morgan, A., d'Adda di Fagagna, F., Jackson, S.P. Curr. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Cisplatin sensitivity in Hmbg1-/- and Hmbg1+/+ mouse cells. Wei, M., Burenkova, O., Lippard, S.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Involvement of toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in cellular activation by high mobility group box 1 protein. Park, J.S., Svetkauskaite, D., He, Q., Kim, J.Y., Strassheim, D., Ishizaka, A., Abraham, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products triggers a proinflammatory cytokine cascade via beta2 integrin Mac-1. Pullerits, R., Brisslert, M., Jonsson, I.M., Tarkowski, A. Arthritis Rheum. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. RAGE is the major receptor for the proinflammatory activity of HMGB1 in rodent macrophages. Kokkola, R., Andersson, A., Mullins, G., Ostberg, T., Treutiger, C.J., Arnold, B., Nawroth, P., Andersson, U., Harris, R.A., Harris, H.E. Scand. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Hepatoma-derived growth factor is a neurotrophic factor harbored in the nucleus. Zhou, Z., Yamamoto, Y., Sugai, F., Yoshida, K., Kishima, Y., Sumi, H., Nakamura, H., Sakoda, S. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. The phase 2 enzyme inducers ethacrynic acid, DL-sulforaphane, and oltipraz inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced high-mobility group box 1 secretion by RAW 264.7 cells. Killeen, M.E., Englert, J.A., Stolz, D.B., Song, M., Han, Y., Delude, R.L., Kellum, J.A., Fink, M.P. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. High mobility group 1 protein (HMG-1) stimulates proinflammatory cytokine synthesis in human monocytes. Andersson, U., Wang, H., Palmblad, K., Aveberger, A.C., Bloom, O., Erlandsson-Harris, H., Janson, A., Kokkola, R., Zhang, M., Yang, H., Tracey, K.J. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Evidence for a shared structural role for HMG1 and linker histones B4 and H1 in organizing chromatin. Nightingale, K., Dimitrov, S., Reeves, R., Wolffe, A.P. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Activation of poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase (PARP-1) induces release of the pro-inflammatory mediator HMGB1 from the nucleus. Ditsworth, D., Zong, W.X., Thompson, C.B. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  20. Sox8 is a specific marker for muscle satellite cells and inhibits myogenesis. Schmidt, K., Glaser, G., Wernig, A., Wegner, M., Rosorius, O. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. The activity of mammalian brm/SNF2alpha is dependent on a high-mobility-group protein I/Y-like DNA binding domain. Bourachot, B., Yaniv, M., Muchardt, C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Stimulation of excitatory amino acid release from adult mouse brain glia subcellular particles by high mobility group box 1 protein. Pedrazzi, M., Raiteri, L., Bonanno, G., Patrone, M., Ledda, S., Passalacqua, M., Milanese, M., Melloni, E., Raiteri, M., Pontremoli, S., Sparatore, B. J. Neurochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. A dimer of the lymphoid protein RAG1 recognizes the recombination signal sequence and the complex stably incorporates the high mobility group protein HMG2. Rodgers, K.K., Villey, I.J., Ptaszek, L., Corbett, E., Schatz, D.G., Coleman, J.E. Nucleic Acids Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. The high mobility group protein HMG I(Y) can stimulate or inhibit DNA binding of distinct transcription factor ATF-2 isoforms. Du, W., Maniatis, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Exogenous high-mobility group box 1 protein induces myocardial regeneration after infarction via enhanced cardiac C-kit+ cell proliferation and differentiation. Limana, F., Germani, A., Zacheo, A., Kajstura, J., Di Carlo, A., Borsellino, G., Leoni, O., Palumbo, R., Battistini, L., Rastaldo, R., Müller, S., Pompilio, G., Anversa, P., Bianchi, M.E., Capogrossi, M.C. Circ. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Early release of HMGB-1 from neurons after the onset of brain ischemia. Qiu, J., Nishimura, M., Wang, Y., Sims, J.R., Qiu, S., Savitz, S.I., Salomone, S., Moskowitz, M.A. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2008) [Pubmed]
  27. The conserved lymphokine element-0 in the IL5 promoter binds to a high mobility group-1 protein. Marrugo, J., Marsh, D.G., Ghosh, B. Mol. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Comparative studies on microinjected high-mobility-group chromosomal proteins, HMG1 and HMG2. Wu, L., Rechsteiner, M., Kuehl, L. J. Cell Biol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  29. High mobility group box chromosomal protein 1, a DNA binding cytokine, induces arthritis. Pullerits, R., Jonsson, I.M., Verdrengh, M., Bokarewa, M., Andersson, U., Erlandsson-Harris, H., Tarkowski, A. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
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