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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Tissue Fixation

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Disease relevance of Tissue Fixation

  • In the present study we examined by morphometry the effect of tissue fixation and processing on the immunocytochemical morphology of the Golgi apparatus of motor neurons from spinal cords of five controls and in one patient with leptomeningeal lymphoma [1].
  • In the case of sectioned cells fixed overnight with formalin, simulating conditions used in routine tissue fixation, this approach failed to demonstrate EBV DNA present at less than 100 copies per cell, that is, at the level found in Raji cells [2].
  • Using uniform systematic random sampling, we tested whether a drop in mitoses and PCNA (proliferation cell nuclear antigen) positive cells following a delay in tissue fixation of up to five hours, would be unequivocally discernible at the well perfused periphery from 11 aggressive rat adenocarcinomas [3].

Psychiatry related information on Tissue Fixation

  • The inclusion of a formic acid step in routine formaldehyde tissue fixation will thus provide histologic sections of excellent quality, and virtually eliminate the risk of handling infectious material in the subsequent neuropathologic processing of tissues from patients with CJD [4].

High impact information on Tissue Fixation

  • Tissue fixation in 95% ethanol 1% acetic acid (EA) resulted in an enhanced and defined cytoplasmic staining of the normal colon cell lining the mucosal surface and upper levels of the glandular crypts [5].
  • Tissue fixation in formalin supplemented with acetic acid served to extract non-cross-linked fibrin, fibrinogen, and fibrinogen and fibrin degradation products, thus ensuring that clotted and cross-linked fibrin was the major immunoreactant [6].
  • Previously, we have shown that in situ detection of different types of L-selectin ligands is highly dependent on the tissue fixation protocol used [7].
  • Limitations of postmortem assessment of human coronary artery size and luminal narrowing: differential effects of tissue fixation and processing on vessels with different degrees of atherosclerosis [8].
  • As a corollary, it is suggested that tight complexing of calcium ions or other divalent metal cations with proteins during formaldehyde tissue fixation is responsible for the masking of certain antigens [9].

Biological context of Tissue Fixation


Anatomical context of Tissue Fixation


Associations of Tissue Fixation with chemical compounds


Gene context of Tissue Fixation

  • The detection of TLR2 mRNA in human lung tissue prompted us to localize the expression of mRNA and protein at the cellular level using a novel method for tissue fixation [21].
  • Despite various modifications in tissue fixation and immunohistochemical staining as well as use of different commercially available MRP2 antibodies, we never observed any unequivocal MRP2 staining in the brain of normal rats [22].
  • To determine the effect of tissue fixation and staining methods on the pattern of CK7/20 staining, unstained slides were exchanged between institutions, stained separately by each institution, and reexamined by all pathologists [23].
  • All the antibodies showed a similar specific labelling pattern: both glandular and ductal cells were immunoreactive for both IL-1 alpha and beta, provided optimal tissue fixation was used [24].
  • Similar localization of the AT1 receptor was obtained using the three tissue fixation methods, although the intensity of vascular and glomerular staining was highest in Bouin-fixed tissues [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tissue Fixation


  1. On the significance and reproducibility of the fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus of motor neurons in human spinal cords. Tascos, N., Mourelatos, Z., Gonatas, N.K. J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Visualization of single copies of the Epstein-Barr virus genome by in situ hybridization. Teo, C.G., Griffin, B.E. Anal. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Is the frequency of mitoses and PCNA positive cells in tissues affected by delay in fixation? Lessons for accurate tumor grading. Laroye, G.J. Pathology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. A simple and effective method for inactivating virus infectivity in formalin-fixed tissue samples from patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Brown, P., Wolff, A., Gajdusek, D.C. Neurology (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Immunoperoxidase localization of carcinoembryonic antigen in normal human intestinal mucosa. Primus, F.J., Clark, C.A., Goldenburg, D.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. Myocardial fibrin deposition in experimental viral myocarditis that progresses to dilated cardiomyopathy. Schnitt, S.J., Stillman, I.E., Owings, D.V., Kishimoto, C., Dvorak, H.F., Abelmann, W.H. Circ. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Identification of L-selectin binding heparan sulfates attached to collagen type XVIII. Celie, J.W., Keuning, E.D., Beelen, R.H., Dräger, A.M., Zweegman, S., Kessler, F.L., Soininen, R., van den Born, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Limitations of postmortem assessment of human coronary artery size and luminal narrowing: differential effects of tissue fixation and processing on vessels with different degrees of atherosclerosis. Siegel, R.J., Swan, K., Edwalds, G., Fishbein, M.C. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  9. Possible role of tissue-bound calcium ions in citrate-mediated high-temperature antigen retrieval. Morgan, J.M., Navabi, H., Schmid, K.W., Jasani, B. J. Pathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Kidney: a target organ for calcitonin gene-related peptide. Zaidi, M., Datta, H., Bevis, P.J. Exp. Physiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. In vivo inhibition of transcellular water channels (aquaporin-1) during acute peritoneal dialysis in rats. Carlsson, O., Nielsen, S., Zakaria el-R, n.u.l.l., Rippe, B. Am. J. Physiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Distal axonopathy: one common type of neurotoxic lesion. Spencer, P.S., Schaumburg, H.H. Environ. Health Perspect. (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in the rat gastric mucosa. The significance of post mortem changes and tissue fixation on the estimation of the in vivo level. Ruoff, H.J. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. The effect of ofloxacin on the human corneal endothelium. McDermott, M.L., Hazlett, L.D., Barrett, R. Cornea (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Sympathetic blockade of isolated limbs by intravenous guanethidine. Holland, A.J., Davies, K.H., Wallace, D.H. Canadian Anaesthetists' Society journal. (1977) [Pubmed]
  16. Preclinical and clinical evaluation of topical acid products for skin tumors. Weiner, M., Semah, D., Schewach-Millet, M., Cesarini, J.P. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1983) [Pubmed]
  17. The influence of chronic exposure to antipsychotic medications on brain size before and after tissue fixation: a comparison of haloperidol and olanzapine in macaque monkeys. Dorph-Petersen, K.A., Pierri, J.N., Perel, J.M., Sun, Z., Sampson, A.R., Lewis, D.A. Neuropsychopharmacology (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Immunostains after glutaraldehyde-based tissue fixation. Cohen, R.J., Fischer, G., McNeal, J.E. Hum. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of a selective beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, procaterol, on tissue cyclic AMP level. Its determination after tissue fixation by microwave irradiation. Saitoh, Y., Hosokawa, T., Igawa, T., Irie, Y. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Toward efficient analysis of mutations in single cells from ethanol-fixed, paraffin-embedded, and immunohistochemically stained tissues. Heinmöller, E., Liu, Q., Sun, Y., Schlake, G., Hill, K.A., Weiss, L.M., Sommer, S.S. Lab. Invest. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Toll-like receptor 2 is expressed by alveolar epithelial cells type II and macrophages in the human lung. Droemann, D., Goldmann, T., Branscheid, D., Clark, R., Dalhoff, K., Zabel, P., Vollmer, E. Histochem. Cell Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of the multidrug transporter MRP2 in the blood-brain barrier after pilocarpine-induced seizures in rats. Hoffmann, K., Gastens, A.M., Volk, H.A., Löscher, W. Epilepsy Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Interinstitutional variability and effect of tissue fixative on the interpretation of a Barrett cytokeratin 7/20 immunoreactivity pattern in Barrett esophagus. Glickman, J.N., Ormsby, A.H., Gramlich, T.L., Goldblum, J.R., Odze, R.D. Hum. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Interleukin 1 immunoreactivity in sebaceous glands. Anttila, H.S., Reitamo, S., Saurat, J.H. Br. J. Dermatol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Immunohistochemical localization of ANG II AT1 receptor in adult rat kidney using a monoclonal antibody. Harrison-Bernard, L.M., Navar, L.G., Ho, M.M., Vinson, G.P., el-Dahr, S.S. Am. J. Physiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of formalin tissue fixation and processing on immunohistochemistry. Werner, M., Chott, A., Fabiano, A., Battifora, H. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Ultrastructural analysis of skin and aorta from a patient with Menkes disease. Pasquali-Ronchetti, I., Baccarani-Contri, M., Young, R.D., Vogel, A., Steinmann, B., Royce, P.M. Exp. Mol. Pathol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Mast cell distribution and density in the normal uterus--metachromatic staining using lectins. Sivridis, E., Giatromanolaki, A., Agnantis, N., Anastasiadis, P. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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