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Chemical Compound Review

Sublimate     dichloromercury

Synonyms: Calocure, Fungchex, Sublimat, Calochlor, HgCl2, ...
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Disease relevance of MERCURIC CHLORIDE

  • Administration of HgCl2 to naive BN rats induced marked autoantibody production, systemic vasculitis and lymphocytic infiltration of the kidneys, liver and skin in all of the animals and a 47% mortality [1].
  • In the present study, the pathophysiologic role of glomerular hemodynamic factors in the early phase of HgCl2-induced acute renal failure is evaluated in the dog [2].
  • HgCl2 toxicity appears to be a consequence of inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation leading to ATP depletion and cell death [3].
  • These experiments demonstrate that HgCl2 induces autoreactive T cells and suggest that these cells may be responsible for the autoimmune disease [4].
  • Previous studies have established that in susceptible mouse strains, such as A.SW (H-2s), repeated injections of subtoxic doses of HgCl2 induce increased serum levels of total IgE and IgG1, high serum titers of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANo1A), and immune-complex glomerulonephritis [5].

Psychiatry related information on MERCURIC CHLORIDE

  • The results indicate a role for HgCl2 in the stimulation of natural antibodies producing cells and the existence of interspecies cross-reactive Id among mouse and rat natural antibodies [6].
  • In time-response studies, animals were administered 5 mg Hg/kg as HgCl2 and sacrificed after 3, 9, 18, 24, and 48 h [7].

High impact information on MERCURIC CHLORIDE

  • The cationic conductance was also induced by direct injection of protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit, reduced by the kinase inhibitor H7, and blocked by HgCl2, an inhibitor of aquaporin 1 [8].
  • The aim of this work was to investigate, using T cell lines derived from HgCl2-injected LEW rats (LEWHg), the effect of these autoreactive T cells on the development of Th2-mediated autoimmunity [9].
  • Protection from the experimental autoimmunity was associated with signs of low grade activation of the BN immune system, which included: increased numbers of circulating B and activated T cells before administration of HgCl2, and less autoreactivity and spontaneous proliferation in vitro after HgCl2 [1].
  • In contrast, BN rats pretreated with HgCl2-resistant allogeneic Lewis bone marrow and transient FK506 showed less clinical disease and were completely protected from mortality [1].
  • Unfractionated BN rat splenocytes and purified T cells exposed to HgCl2 expressed high levels of IL-4 mRNA [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of MERCURIC CHLORIDE


Biological context of MERCURIC CHLORIDE


Anatomical context of MERCURIC CHLORIDE


Associations of MERCURIC CHLORIDE with other chemical compounds

  • Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) induced autoimmunity in the Brown Norway (BN) strain but an immuno-suppression in the Lewis strain with, however, autoreactive anti-class II T cells present in both strains [10].
  • Russell's viper venom, a control Factor X-activating serine protease, was not inhibited by either 0.1 mM HgCl2 or 1 mM iodoacetamide [22].
  • In addition, expression of a direct Factor X activator developed under hypoxic conditions; the activator was membrane-associated and expressed on the surface of intact cultures, Ca-dependent, inhibited by HgCl2 but not PMSF, and had Km approximately 25 micrograms/ml for the substrate at pH 7 [23].
  • Fluorescence quenching measurements showed that the isolated vesicles maintained a high, HgCl2-sensitive water permeability, consistent with the presence of vasopressin-sensitive water channels [24].
  • The increase in osmotic water permeability was inhibited by HgCl2, and this effect was reversed by a reducing agent, 2-mercaptoethanol [25].



Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of MERCURIC CHLORIDE

  • Brown-Norway (BN) rats were pretreated with a syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow infusion under transient FK506 immunosuppression before receiving HgCl2 [1].
  • In the present study we looked at modifications of cytokine production by PCR and cytofluorometric analyses in normal BN and Lewis rat splenocytes, cultured with or without HgCl2 [10].
  • Moreover, exogenous HGF stimulated DNA synthesis of renal tubular cells after renal injuries caused by HgCl2 administration and unilateral nephrectomy and induced reconstruction of the normal renal tissue structure in vivo [30].
  • No loss of cellular integrity or major mitochondrial structural alterations occurred within the first 3 h after a subcutaneous injection of 5 mg/kg of HgCl2 [31].
  • Rats treated with HgCl2 received antibody by intravenous injection at various time points [32].


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  2. PVP-sieving curves as an estimate of glomerular hemodynamics in HgCl2 acute renal failure in the dog. Vanholder, R.C., Lambert, P.P., Lameire, N.H. Circ. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
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  6. Autoimmunity induced by HgCl2 in Brown-Norway rats. II. Monoclonal antibodies sharing specificities and idiotypes with mouse natural monoclonal antibodies. Lymberi, P., Hirsch, F., Kuhn, J., Ternynck, T., Druet, P., Avrameas, S. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
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  15. Alterations in intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and redox potential modulate mast cell function. Wolfreys, K., Oliveira, D.B. Eur. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Functional properties of a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase promoter from Arabidopsis. Ohl, S., Hedrick, S.A., Chory, J., Lamb, C.J. Plant Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
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  18. Mercury-induced autoreactive anti-class II T cell line protects from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by the bias of CD8+ antiergotypic cells in Lewis rats. Castedo, M., Pelletier, L., Rossert, J., Pasquier, R., Villarroya, H., Druet, P. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  19. Cloning, functional analysis and cell localization of a kidney proximal tubule water transporter homologous to CHIP28. Zhang, R., Skach, W., Hasegawa, H., van Hoek, A.N., Verkman, A.S. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. Tetrameric assembly of CHIP28 water channels in liposomes and cell membranes: a freeze-fracture study. Verbavatz, J.M., Brown, D., Sabolić, I., Valenti, G., Ausiello, D.A., Van Hoek, A.N., Ma, T., Verkman, A.S. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  21. Asymmetrical, agonist-induced fluctuations in local extracellular [Ca(2+)] in intact polarized epithelia. Caroppo, R., Gerbino, A., Debellis, L., Kifor, O., Soybel, D.I., Brown, E.M., Hofer, A.M., Curci, S. EMBO J. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. A factor X-activating cysteine protease from malignant tissue. Gordon, S.G., Cross, B.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  23. Hypoxia modulates the barrier and coagulant function of cultured bovine endothelium. Increased monolayer permeability and induction of procoagulant properties. Ogawa, S., Gerlach, H., Esposito, C., Pasagian-Macaulay, A., Brett, J., Stern, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. Apical endosomes isolated from kidney collecting duct principal cells lack subunits of the proton pumping ATPase. Sabolić, I., Wuarin, F., Shi, L.B., Verkman, A.S., Ausiello, D.A., Gluck, S., Brown, D. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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  28. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) enhances recovery from HgCl2-induced acute renal failure: the effects on renal IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor, and IGF-binding protein-1 mRNA. Friedlaender, M., Popovtzer, M.M., Weiss, O., Nefesh, I., Kopolovic, J., Raz, I. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Th1/Th2 cytokine gene expression after mercuric chloride in susceptible and resistant rat strains. Gillespie, K.M., Saoudi, A., Kuhn, J., Whittle, C.J., Druet, P., Bellon, B., Mathieson, P.W. Eur. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  30. Hepatocyte growth factor prevents acute renal failure and accelerates renal regeneration in mice. Kawaida, K., Matsumoto, K., Shimazu, H., Nakamura, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
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  32. Role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of experimental vasculitis. Qasim, F.J., Mathieson, P.W., Sendo, F., Thiru, S., Oliveira, D.B. Am. J. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
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