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Disease relevance of Pulpitis

  • METHODS: Forty-eight primary molars with deep occlusal caries, but without preoperative signs and symptoms of irreversible pulpitis, received indirect pulp treatment and were restored with a composite resin (Z100) [1].
  • These findings suggest that Gram-positive bacteria, such as L. casei, from carious lesions, might be involved in developing pulpitis through the stimulation of IL-6 production [2].

High impact information on Pulpitis


Chemical compound and disease context of Pulpitis

  • In the Formalin-induced pulpitis of rats and the electrically stimulated pulps of dogs, a bradykininlike substance developed by the pulps and released into a saline pool on the exposed pulps disappeared after a local application of Apernyl solution [8].
  • Pulpitis of the fingers from a shoe glue containing 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT) [9].
  • Re: The use of an intra-oral injection of ketorolac in the treatment of irreversible pulpitis [10].
  • Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous injection of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in irreversible pulpitis [11].
  • We concluded that, for posterior teeth diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis, the supplemental intraosseous injection of 2% lidocaine (1:100,000 epinephrine) was successful when conventional techniques failed [11].

Anatomical context of Pulpitis

  • E. vivo gene transfer of BMP-7 may be an effective method for inducing dentin regeneration in teeth with reversible pulpitis [12].
  • This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of an iNOS-specific inhibitor, N-(3-(aminomethyl)benzyl)acetamidine (1400W), on experimentally induced rat pulpitis in the upper incisors of 6-wk-old male Wistar rats [13].
  • In the mature tooth, HGF expression by fibroblasts is enhanced in pulpitis and mediated through the induction of prostaglandin (PG) E(2); it is induced not only by inflammatory cytokines, but also by components of oral bacteria [14].
  • Sixty-four emergency patients diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth randomly received, in a blinded manner, 2.8 ml of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine using either a conventional inferior alveolar nerve block or a bidirectional-needle-rotational technique using the Wand II injection system [15].
  • T lymphocyte subpopulations and interleukin-2, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-4 in rat pulpitis experimentally induced by specific bacteria [16].

Gene context of Pulpitis

  • The concentration of MMP-3 in acute pulpitis was significantly higher than the control and chronic pulpitis groups (p < 0.05) [17].
  • Because excessive levels of IL-6 and prostaglandins have been connected with the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, our results suggest the involvement of HDP fibroblasts in the development of pulpitis via producing IL-6 and COX-2 [18].
  • However, vascular TRPV1 expression does appear to be positively correlated with dental pain, thus providing new insights into symptomatic pulpitis [19].
  • AIM: To use radioreceptor analysis for comparing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor expression in human pulp tissue samples collected from teeth having a clinical diagnosis of acute irreversible pulpitis, healthy pulps and teeth with induced inflammation [20].
  • CONCLUSIONS: TNF-alpha may be an objective marker for determining extent of pulpal inflammation associated with irreversible pulpitis [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Pulpitis

  • Inflammation was induced by drilling tooth cusps to create pulpal exposures; the induced pulpitis and subsequent periapical lesions were studied 1-35 days later using standard CGRP immunohistochemistry and the avidin-biotin peroxidase method [22].
  • We determined in vivo pulpal levels of immunoreactive substance P in human teeth with a diagnosis of normal pulp or irreversible pulpitis using CMA/20 microdialysis probes inserted into vital pulps of 24 teeth from 21 patients [23].
  • METHODS: The PICOT statement was: (P) In human carious primary molars with reversible coronal pulpitis, (I) does a pulpotomy performed with ferric sulfate, (C) compared with formocresol, (O) result in dinical/radiographic success, (T) in time periods up to exfoliation [24]?


  1. Indirect pulp treatment: in vivo outcomes of an adhesive resin system vs calcium hydroxide for protection of the dentin-pulp complex. Falster, C.A., Araujo, F.B., Straffon, L.H., Nör, J.E. Pediatric dentistry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Stimulation of interleukin-6 production in human dental pulp cells by peptidoglycans from Lactobacillus casei. Matsushima, K., Ohbayashi, E., Takeuchi, H., Hosoya, S., Abiko, Y., Yamazaki, M. Journal of endodontics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Trigeminal c-Fos expression and behavioral responses to pulpal inflammation in ferrets. Chattipakorn, S.C., Sigurdsson, A., Light, A.R., Narhi, M., Maixner, W. Pain (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Cytokine induction by Streptococcus mutans and pulpal pathogenesis. Hahn, C.L., Best, A.M., Tew, J.G. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Lipopolysaccharide enhances the production of vascular endothelial growth factor by human pulp cells in culture. Matsushita, K., Motani, R., Sakuta, T., Nagaoka, S., Matsuyama, T., Abeyama, K., Maruyama, I., Takada, H., Torii, M. Infect. Immun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of NOS Inhibitor on Cytokine and COX2 Expression in Rat Pulpitis. Kawashima, N., Nakano-Kawanishi, H., Suzuki, N., Takagi, M., Suda, H. J. Dent. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Nitric oxide synthase in healthy and inflamed human dental pulp. Di Nardo Di Maio, F., Lohinai, Z., D'Arcangelo, C., De Fazio, P.E., Speranza, L., De Lutiis, M.A., Patruno, A., Grilli, A., Felaco, M. J. Dent. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibitory effect of Apernyl on production of bradykininlike substance in pulp. Kudo, T., Kawagoe, M., Hayashi, T., Takezawa, J., Inoki, R. J. Dent. Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Pulpitis of the fingers from a shoe glue containing 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT). Ayadi, M., Martin, P. Contact Derm. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Re: The use of an intra-oral injection of ketorolac in the treatment of irreversible pulpitis. Hargreaves, K.M. International endodontic journal. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Anesthetic efficacy of the supplemental intraosseous injection of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in irreversible pulpitis. Nusstein, J., Reader, A., Nist, R., Beck, M., Meyers, W.J. Journal of endodontics. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. BMP-7 gene transfer to inflamed ferret dental pulps. Rutherford, R.B. Eur. J. Oral Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of an inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on experimentally induced rat pulpitis. Kawanishi, H.N., Kawashima, N., Suzuki, N., Suda, H., Takagi, M. Eur. J. Oral Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor in development, inflammation and carcinogenesis: its expression and role in oral tissues. Ohnishi, T., Daikuhara, Y. Arch. Oral Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. The significance of needle deflection in success of the inferior alveolar nerve block in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Kennedy, S., Reader, A., Nusstein, J., Beck, M., Weaver, J. Journal of endodontics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. T lymphocyte subpopulations and interleukin-2, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-4 in rat pulpitis experimentally induced by specific bacteria. Kim, S.A., Lim, S.S. Journal of endodontics. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Tissue levels of matrix metalloproteinases in pulps and periapical lesions. Shin, S.J., Lee, J.I., Baek, S.H., Lim, S.S. Journal of endodontics. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential regulation of interleukin-6 and inducible cyclooxygenase gene expression by cytokines through prostaglandin-dependent and -independent mechanisms in human dental pulp fibroblasts. Lin, S.K., Kuo, M.Y., Wang, J.S., Lee, J.J., Wang, C.C., Huang, S., Shun, C.T., Hong, C.Y. Journal of endodontics. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Vanilloid receptor 1 expression in human tooth pulp in relation to caries and pain. Morgan, C.R., Rodd, H.D., Clayton, N., Davis, J.B., Boissonade, F.M. Journal of orofacial pain. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor expression in healthy and inflamed human pulp tissue. Caviedes-Bucheli, J., Arenas, N., Guiza, O., Moncada, N.A., Moreno, G.C., Diaz, E., Munoz, H.R. International endodontic journal. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Detection of tumor necrosis factor alpha in normal and inflamed human dental pulps. Pezelj-Ribaric, S., Anic, I., Brekalo, I., Miletic, I., Hasan, M., Simunovic-Soskic, M. Arch. Med. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Inflammation of rat molar pulp and periodontium causes increased calcitonin gene-related peptide and axonal sprouting. Kimberly, C.L., Byers, M.R. Anat. Rec. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Tissue levels of immunoreactive substance P are increased in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Bowles, W.R., Withrow, J.C., Lepinski, A.M., Hargreaves, K.M. Journal of endodontics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Evidence-based assessment: evaluation of the formocresol versus ferric sulfate primary molar pulpotomy. Loh, A., O'Hoy, P., Tran, X., Charles, R., Hughes, A., Kubo, K., Messer, L.B. Pediatric dentistry. (2004) [Pubmed]
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