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Disease relevance of Nails


High impact information on Nails


Chemical compound and disease context of Nails


Biological context of Nails


Anatomical context of Nails


Associations of Nails with chemical compounds

  • In the analysis of covariance the best predictors of toenail selenium concentration were selenium intake from supplements and food, and among supplement users dietary beta-carotene also [23].
  • Oral terbinafine treatment for superficial fungal infections of toe and fingernails is associated with a low incidence (1:45000) of hepatobiliary dysfunction [24].
  • Phenol cauterization for ingrowing toenails: a review of five years' experience [25].
  • Use of toenail fluoride levels as an indicator for the risk of hip and forearm fractures in women [26].
  • Furnace atomic absorption and flame atomic absorption were used to determine toenail cadmium and zinc concentrations, respectively [1].

Gene context of Nails

  • Zimmermann-Laband syndrome (ZLS) is characterised by findings of coarse facial appearance, hepatosplenomegaly, and hirsutism often first observed in infancy, followed by the evolution during childhood of gingival fibromatosis, small joint hyperextensibility, and hypoplasia of the finger- and toenails [27].
  • Symmetrically thickened fingernails and toenails are the defining characteristic of PC type 2 (PC-2) with onset at infancy [17].
  • Therefore, it seems that GSTT1 modifies the relationship between As(in) exposure and toenail As(in) content [28].
  • Healthy Japanese volunteers provided hairs (n = 50), buccal cell swabs (n = 50), and fingernails (n = 30) for N-acetyltransferase 2 and CYP2C19 genotyping [16].
  • Median toenail Se was lower for HCC cases than controls (p = 0.03) [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Nails


  1. Prediagnostic toenail cadmium and zinc and subsequent prostate cancer risk. Platz, E.A., Helzlsouer, K.J., Hoffman, S.C., Morris, J.S., Baskett, C.K., Comstock, G.W. Prostate (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Prediagnostic toenail selenium and risk of bladder cancer. Zeegers, M.P., Goldbohm, R.A., Bode, P., van den Brandt, P.A. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Once-weekly fluconazole (450 mg) for 4, 6, or 9 months of treatment for distal subungual onychomycosis of the toenail. Ling, M.R., Swinyer, L.J., Jarratt, M.T., Falo, L., Monroe, E.W., Tharp, M., Kalivas, J., Weinstein, G.D., Asarch, R.G., Drake, L., Martin, A.G., Leyden, J.J., Cook, J., Pariser, D.M., Pariser, R., Thiers, B.H., Lebwohl, M.G., Babel, D., Stewart, D.M., Eaglstein, W.H., Falanga, V., Katz, H.I., Bergfeld, W.F., Hanifin, J.M., Young, M.R. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. German randomized double-blind multicentre comparison of terbinafine and itraconazole for the treatment of toenail tinea infection. Bräutigam, M., Nolting, S., Schopf, R.E., Weidinger, G. Br. J. Dermatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Lithium-induced psoriasis of the fingernails. Rudolph, R.I. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Ingrowing toenails and cyclosporin. Olujohungbe, A., Cox, J., Hammon, M.D., Prentice, H.G. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Letter: Adriamycin and longitudinal pigmented banding of fingernails. Priestman, T.J., James, K.W. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Ingrown toenail and indinavir: case-control study demonstrates strong relationship. Bourezane, Y., Thalamy, B., Viel, J.F., Bardonnet, K., Drobacheff, C., Gil, H., Vuitton, D.A., Hoen, B. AIDS (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Lithium carbonate and toenails. Hooper, J.F. The American journal of psychiatry. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. A 1-y trial of the effect of high-selenium bread on selenium concentrations in blood and toenails. Longnecker, M.P., Stampfer, M.J., Morris, J.S., Spate, V., Baskett, C., Mason, M., Willett, W.C. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Intermittent terbinafine for toenail onychomycosis: is it effective? Results of a randomized pilot trial. Warshaw, E.M., Carver, S.M., Zielke, G.R., Ahmed, D.D. Archives of dermatology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. A double-blind, randomized comparison of itraconazole capsules and placebo in the treatment of onychomycosis of the toenail. Odom, R., Daniel, C.R., Aly, R. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in skin and nails. Faergemann, J. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis for onychomycosis therapy in Canada from a government perspective. Einarson, T.R., Arikian, S.R., Shear, N.H. Br. J. Dermatol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Ciclopirox nail lacquer topical solution 8% in the treatment of toenail onychomycosis. Gupta, A.K., Fleckman, P., Baran, R. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of N-acetyltransferase 2 and CYP2C19 genotypes for hair, buccal cell swabs, or fingernails compared with blood. Tanigawara, Y., Kita, T., Hirono, M., Sakaeda, T., Komada, F., Okumura, K. Therapeutic drug monitoring. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Keratin 17 mutation in pachyonychia congenita type 2 with early onset sebaceous cysts. Feng, Y.G., Xiao, S.X., Ren, X.R., Wang, W.Q., Liu, A., Pan, M. Br. J. Dermatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Inhalation of nail dust from onychomycotic toenails. Part I. Characterization of particles. 1984. Abramson, C., Wilton, J. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Segmental phenolic ablation for ingrown toenails in general practice. Buckley, D. Irish medical journal. (2000) [Pubmed]
  20. An intermittent itraconazole 1-week dosing regimen for the treatment of toenail onychomycosis in dermatological practice. Ginter, G., De Doncker, P. Mycoses (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Predictors of adipose tissue tocopherol and toenail selenium levels in nine countries: the EURAMIC study. European Multicentre Case-Control Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Cancer of the Breast. Virtanen, S.M., van't Veer, P., Kok, F., Kardinaal, A.F., Aro, A. European journal of clinical nutrition. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Child with De Novo t(1;6)(p22.1;p22.1) translocation and features of ectodermal dysplasia with hypodontia and developmental delay. Asamoah, A., Decker, A.B., Wiktor, A., Van Dyke, D.L. Am. J. Med. Genet. A (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Toenail selenium as an indicator of selenium intake among middle-aged men in an area with low soil selenium. Ovaskainen, M.L., Virtamo, J., Alfthan, G., Haukka, J., Pietinen, P., Taylor, P.R., Huttunen, J.K. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Identification of a reactive metabolite of terbinafine: insights into terbinafine-induced hepatotoxicity. Iverson, S.L., Uetrecht, J.P. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  25. Phenol cauterization for ingrowing toenails: a review of five years' experience. Byrne, D.S., Caldwell, D. The British journal of surgery. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Use of toenail fluoride levels as an indicator for the risk of hip and forearm fractures in women. Feskanich, D., Owusu, W., Hunter, D.J., Willett, W., Ascherio, A., Spiegelman, D., Morris, S., Spate, V.L., Colditz, G. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Zimmermann-Laband syndrome in an adult. Long-term follow-up of a patient with vascular and cardiac complications. Robertson, S.P., Lipp, H., Bankier, A. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Toenail arsenic concentrations, GSTT1 gene polymorphisms, and arsenic exposure from drinking water. Kile, M.L., Houseman, E.A., Rodrigues, E., Smith, T.J., Quamruzzaman, Q., Rahman, M., Mahiuddin, G., Su, L., Christiani, D.C. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Toenail selenium and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma mortality in Haimen City, China. Sakoda, L.C., Graubard, B.I., Evans, A.A., London, W.T., Lin, W.Y., Shen, F.M., McGlynn, K.A. Int. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Treatment of toenail onychomycosis. A randomized, double-blind study with terbinafine and griseofulvin. LAGOS II Study Group. Hofmann, H., Bräutigam, M., Weidinger, G., Zaun, H. Archives of dermatology. (1995) [Pubmed]
  31. Terbinafine (Lamisil) treatment of toenail onychomycosis in patients with insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: a multicentre trial. Farkas, B., Paul, C., Dobozy, A., Hunyadi, J., Horváth, A., Fekete, G. Br. J. Dermatol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Pharmacokinetics of three doses of once-weekly fluconazole (150, 300, and 450 mg) in distal subungual onychomycosis of the toenail. Rich, P., Scher, R.K., Breneman, D., Savin, R.C., Feingold, D.S., Konnikov, N., Shupack, J.L., Pinnell, S., Levine, N., Lowe, N.J., Aly, R., Odom, R.B., Greer, D.L., Morman, M.R., Bucko, A.D., Tschen, E.H., Elewski, B.E., Smith, E.B., Hilbert, J. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Cost-effectiveness of two new treatments for onychomycosis: an analysis of two comparative clinical trials. Bootman, J.L. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. A double-blind study of superficial radiotherapy in psoriatic nail dystrophy. Yu, R.C., King, C.M. Acta Derm. Venereol. (1992) [Pubmed]
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