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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Tinea


Psychiatry related information on Tinea

  • Fifty per cent of 56 recently diagnosed leprosy out-patients, 37% of 19 controls with another stigmatised dermatological condition (vitiligo), but only 8% of 12 controls with a comparable non-stigmatised condition (tinea versicolor) met DSM-III-R criteria for an axis I depressive, anxiety or somatoform disorder [6].

High impact information on Tinea

  • An increased risk of NMSC has been observed among uranium miners, radiologists, and individuals treated with x rays in childhood for tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) or for thymic enlargement; NMSC is one of the cancers most strongly associated with the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki [7].
  • Cimetidine: adjunct in treatment of tinea capitis [8].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that Trichophyton -specific IgE is observed in patients with trichophytosis regardless of atopy [9].
  • On the other hand, topical amorolfine and topical or oral terbinafine were ineffective for tinea unguium, although these drugs eradicated or reduced the fungal burden of plantar skin [10].
  • The effectiveness of KP-103 against tinea unguium is probably due to its favorable pharmacokinetic properties in the nails together with its potent antifungal activity [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Tinea


Biological context of Tinea


Anatomical context of Tinea

  • High cure rates have been obtained in a preliminary study with oral terbinafine, 0.25 g/d, for 12 months, which have cleared toenail tinea in 15 of 17 patients [19].
  • Twenty male patients with a diagnosis of tinea versicolor were randomly assigned to two parallel groups who applied selenium sulfide lotion or the vehicle to the entire skin surface, excluding mucous membranes, for 10 minutes once daily for 7 consecutive days [20].

Gene context of Tinea

  • A sixfole increase in the risk of thyroid cancer was observed among 10,902 persons irradiated for scalp tinea in childhood as compared to two matched control groups [21].
  • CONCLUSIONS: In children who are suspected of having tinea capitis, there is a high likelihood of cultures positive for fungi in those with adenopathy [22].
  • Dermatophytes are fungi that can cause infections (known as tinea) of the skin, hair and nails because of their ability to use keratin [23].
  • Very high titres detected in sera from crossbred Galloway steers were indicative of recent or existing infection which may have been masked by concurrent ringworm [24].
  • In this study, a lack of a Th1 response to dermatophyte antigen was not shown in patients with tinea unguium by measuring the release of IFN-gamma, which plays a role in the effector phase of the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction [25].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Tinea

  • In clinical trials, mycological and overall efficacy rates of around 90 and 80%, respectively, have been achieved in cutaneous dermatophyte infections (tinea corporis/cruris and tinea pedis) with terbinafine, administered either orally (250 or 500 mg/day) or topically (a 1% cream applied twice daily) [26].
  • In patients with tinea cruris or tinea corporis who received once-daily butenafine 1% for 2 weeks, the mycological and overall cure rates continued to increase for up to 4 weeks after treatment cessation [27].
  • Selenium sulfide (2.5%) lotion applied daily for 10 minutes for 7 consecutive days was found to be an effective therapeutic agent, significantly superior to the vehicle, in a double-blind study in the treatment of tinea versicolor [28].
  • Itraconazole pulse therapy is effective in the treatment of tinea capitis in children: an open multicentre study [29].
  • Randomized single-blind study of efficacy and tolerability of terbinafine in the treatment of tinea capitis [30].


  1. Terbinafine. An update of its use in superficial mycoses. McClellan, K.J., Wiseman, L.R., Markham, A. Drugs (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Activity of UK-49,858, a bis-triazole derivative, against experimental infections with Candida albicans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Richardson, K., Brammer, K.W., Marriott, M.S., Troke, P.F. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Itraconazole pulse therapy for onychomycosis and dermatomycoses: an overview. Doncker, P.D., Gupta, A.K., Marynissen, G., Stoffels, P., Heremans, A. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Ciclopirox olamine lotion 1%: bioequivalence to ciclopirox olamine cream 1% and clinical efficacy in tinea pedis. Aly, R., Maibach, H.I., Bagatell, F.K., Dittmar, W., Hänel, H., Falanga, V., Leyden, J.J., Roth, H.L., Stoughton, R.B., Willis, I. Clinical therapeutics. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Fluconazole in the treatment of refractory oral candidiasis and tinea pedis in an elderly patient. Hansen, E. Br. J. Dermatol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. The Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC). Contribution to cross-cultural research methods from a study of leprosy and mental health. Weiss, M.G., Doongaji, D.R., Siddhartha, S., Wypij, D., Pathare, S., Bhatawdekar, M., Bhave, A., Sheth, A., Fernandes, R. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Risk of basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers after ionizing radiation therapy. For The Skin Cancer Prevention Study Group. Karagas, M.R., McDonald, J.A., Greenberg, E.R., Stukel, T.A., Weiss, J.E., Baron, J.A., Stevens, M.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Cimetidine: adjunct in treatment of tinea capitis. Presser, S.E., Blank, H. Lancet (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Trichophyton-specific IgE in patients with dermatophytosis is not associated with aeroallergen sensitivity. Escalante, M.T., Sánchez-Borges, M., Capriles-Hulett, A., Belfort, E., Di Biagio, E., González-Aveledo, L. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Therapeutic efficacy of topically applied KP-103 against experimental tinea unguium in guinea pigs in comparison with amorolfine and terbinafine. Tatsumi, Y., Yokoo, M., Senda, H., Kakehi, K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. Treatment of tinea unguium with medium and high doses of ultramicrosize griseofulvin compared with that with itraconazole. Korting, H.C., Schäfer-Korting, M., Zienicke, H., Georgii, A., Ollert, M.W. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Anti-Trichophyton mentagrophytes activity and percutaneous permeation of butenafine in guinea pigs. Arika, T., Hase, T., Yokoo, M. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Topical treatment with butenafine significantly lowers relapse rate in an interdigital tinea pedis model in guinea pigs. Arika, T., Yokoo, M., Yamaguchi, H. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  14. Epidemiology and treatment of tinea capitis: ketoconazole vs. griseofulvin. Gan, V.N., Petruska, M., Ginsburg, C.M. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Pharmacokinetics of terbinafine in young children treated for tinea capitis. Abdel-Rahman, S.M., Herron, J., Fallon-Friedlander, S., Hauffe, S., Horowitz, A., Rivière, G.J. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Scalp ringworm in south-east London and an analysis of a cohort of patients from a paediatric dermatology department. Fuller, L.C., Child, F.C., Midgley, G., Higgins, E.M. Br. J. Dermatol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Dermatophyte growth and degradation of human stratum corneum in vitro (pathogenesis of dermatophytosis). Samdani, A.J. Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Itraconazole penetrates the nail via the nail matrix and the nail bed--an investigation in onychomycosis. Matthieu, L., De Doncker, P., Cauwenbergh, G., Woestenborghs, R., van de Velde, V., Janssen, P.A., Dockx, P. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Is tinea unguium still widely incurable? A review three decades after the introduction of griseofulvin. Korting, H.C., Schäfer-Korting, M. Archives of dermatology. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Selenium sulfide in tinea versicolor: blood and urine levels. Sánchez, J.L., Torres, V.M. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Thyroid cancer following scalp irradiation. Modan, B., Ron, E., Werner, A. Radiology. (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. The predictive value of symptoms in diagnosing childhood tinea capitis. Hubbard, T.W. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Photodynamic inactivation of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum. Smijs, T.G., Schuitmaker, H.J. Photochem. Photobiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Measurement of antibody to Dermatophilus congolensis in sera from cattle in the west of Scotland by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lloyd, D.H. Vet. Rec. (1981) [Pubmed]
  25. Interferon-gamma production in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with tinea pedis: comparison of patients with and without tinea unguium. Koga, T., Shimizu, A., Nakayama, J. Med. Mycol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. Terbinafine. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic potential in superficial mycoses. Balfour, J.A., Faulds, D. Drugs (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Butenafine. McNeely, W., Spencer, C.M. Drugs (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Double-blind efficacy study of selenium sulfide in tinea versicolor. Sánchez, J.L., Torres, V.M. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Itraconazole pulse therapy is effective in the treatment of tinea capitis in children: an open multicentre study. Gupta, A.K., Alexis, M.E., Raboobee, N., Hofstader, S.L., Lynde, C.W., Adam, P., Summerbell, R.C., Doncker, P.D. Br. J. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Randomized single-blind study of efficacy and tolerability of terbinafine in the treatment of tinea capitis. Kullavanijaya, P., Reangchainam, S., Ungpakorn, R. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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