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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Hirsutism


Psychiatry related information on Hirsutism


High impact information on Hirsutism


Chemical compound and disease context of Hirsutism


Biological context of Hirsutism


Anatomical context of Hirsutism

  • Among a group of patients with so-called "idiopathic hirsutism," four patients were recognized with elevated androstenedione and (slightly) elevated cortisol levels which showed abnormalities in the affinity and/or number of glucocorticoid receptors on their peripheral mononuclear leukocytes [25].
  • We have measured the total (cytosolic plus nuclear) androgen binding capacity of pubic skin fibroblasts from nine patients with hirsutism of various origin [26].
  • A significant increase in the percentage of H-Y-positive lymphocytes was found in both hirsute women with idiopathic hirsutism [13.4 +/- 2.9% (+/- SD); n = 15] and hirsute women with the polycystic ovary syndrome (13.0 +/- 2.8%; n = 12) compared to that in normal women (10.0 +/- 1.9%; n = 30; P less than 0.0005) [27].
  • Thus, it has been postulated that increased sensitivity of the hair follicle to androgen may contribute to the development of hirsutism in such patients [28].
  • At the same time, clinical parameters such as anthropometry, total (TAT), visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue, hirsutism and menses were also measured [29].

Gene context of Hirsutism

  • Serum PSA levels were compared between 22 hirsute women with a Ferriman-Gallwey score higher than 8 and 50 women without hirsutism [30].
  • Molecular genetic analysis of CAPN10 gene indicates that different alleles may play a role in PCOS susceptibility and could be associated with idiopathic hirsutism [31].
  • The clinical use of diazoxide has been hampered by its lack of potency and selectivity giving rise to side effects, such as oedema and hirsutism and new selective openers of Kir6.2/SUR1 channels have been pursued [32].
  • CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that women with PCOS have a high incidence of genomic instability, and this condition is positively correlated with the hirsutism score, BMI, LH and serum total testosterone and insulin levels, and is negatively correlated with SHBG [33].
  • Moreover, patients with ovarian hirsutism have decreased IGFBP-3 concentrations, which might enhance IGF-1 bioavailability [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hirsutism


  1. Late-onset adrenal hyperplasia in hirsutism. Kuttenn, F., Couillin, P., Girard, F., Billaud, L., Vincens, M., Boucekkine, C., Thalabard, J.C., Maudelonde, T., Spritzer, P., Mowszowicz, I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of virilizing adrenal tumors in hirsute women. Derksen, J., Nagesser, S.K., Meinders, A.E., Haak, H.R., van de Velde, C.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Florid Cushing's syndrome and hirsutism induced by desoximetasone. Himathongkam, T., Dasanabhairochana, P., Pitchayayothin, N., Sriphrapradang, A. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  4. Fulminant liver failure associated with flutamide therapy for hirsutism. Andrade, R.J., Lucena, M.I., Fernández, M.C., Suárez, F., Montero, J.L., Fraga, E., Hidalgo, F. Lancet (1999) [Pubmed]
  5. Superactive gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists. Swerdloff, R.S., Heber, D. Annu. Rev. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Body dysmorphic disorder due to hirsutism in a patient treated with cyclosporin. Vergoulas, G., Eleftheriadis, T., Avdelidou, A., Ioannou, K., Miserlis, G., Solonaki, F., Papagiannis, A., Takoudas, D. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Syndrome of gingival hypertrophy, hirsutism, mental retardation and brachymetacarpia in two sisters: specific entity or variant of a described condition? Göhlich-Ratmann, G., Lackner, A., Schaper, J., Voit, T., Gillessen-Kaesbach, G. Am. J. Med. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Quality of life of hirsute women. Sonino, N., Fava, G.A., Mani, E., Belluardo, P., Boscaro, M. Postgraduate medical journal. (1993) [Pubmed]
  9. The polycystic ovary syndrome--a medical condition but also an important psychosocial problem. Eggers, S., Kirchengast, S. Collegium antropologicum. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. ACTH stimulation tests in women with hirsutism. Dewailly, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Idiopathic hirsutism--an ovarian abnormality. Kirschner, M.A., Zucker, I.R., Jespersen, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Idiopathic hirsutism. Azziz, R., Carmina, E., Sawaya, M.E. Endocr. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Hirsutism associated with long-term phenothiazine neuroleptic therapy. Phillips, P., Shraberg, D., Weitzel, W.D. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  14. 3 alpha, 17 beta-androstanediol glucuronide in plasma. A marker of androgen action in idiopathic hirsutism. Horton, R., Hawks, D., Lobo, R. J. Clin. Invest. (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. 5 alpha-reductase activity in polycystic ovary syndrome. Stewart, P.M., Shackleton, C.H., Beastall, G.H., Edwards, C.R. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Ketoconazole for hirsutism. Carvalho, D., Pignatelli, D., Resende, C. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Descriptive review of the evidence for the use of metformin in polycystic ovary syndrome. Harborne, L., Fleming, R., Lyall, H., Norman, J., Sattar, N. Lancet (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Long-term efficacy and tolerability of flutamide combined with oral contraception in moderate to severe hirsutism: a 12-month, double-blind, parallel clinical trial. Calaf, J., López, E., Millet, A., Alcañiz, J., Fortuny, A., Vidal, O., Callejo, J., Escobar-Jiménez, F., Torres, E., Espinós, J.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Clinical review: Insulin sensitizers for the treatment of hirsutism: a systematic review and metaanalyses of randomized controlled trials. Cosma, M., Swiglo, B.A., Flynn, D.N., Kurtz, D.M., Labella, M.L., Mullan, R.J., Elamin, M.B., Erwin, P.J., Montori, V.M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2008) [Pubmed]
  20. Comparison of efficacy of spironolactone with metformin in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome: an open-labeled study. Ganie, M.A., Khurana, M.L., Eunice, M., Gupta, N., Gulati, M., Dwivedi, S.N., Ammini, A.C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Coronary heart disease risk factors in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Talbott, E., Guzick, D., Clerici, A., Berga, S., Detre, K., Weimer, K., Kuller, L. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Troglitazone improves ovulation and hirsutism in the polycystic ovary syndrome: a multicenter, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. Azziz, R., Ehrmann, D., Legro, R.S., Whitcomb, R.W., Hanley, R., Fereshetian, A.G., O'Keefe, M., Ghazzi, M.N. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. The role of the CAG repeat polymorphism in the androgen receptor gene and of skewed X-chromosome inactivation, in the pathogenesis of hirsutism. Calvo, R.M., Asunción, M., Sancho, J., San Millán, J.L., Escobar-Morreale, H.F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. The role of adrenocorticotropin testing in evaluating girls with premature adrenarche and hirsutism/oligomenorrhea. Hawkins, L.A., Chasalow, F.I., Blethen, S.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Familial and iatrogenic cortisol receptor resistance. Lamberts, S.W., Koper, J.W., Biemond, P., den Holder, F.H., de Jong, F.H. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Androgen binding capacity and 5 alpha-reductase activity in pubic skin fibroblasts from hirsute patients. Mowszowicz, I., Melanitou, E., Doukani, A., Wright, F., Kuttenn, F., Mauvais-Jarvis, P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Increase in H-Y antigen-positive lymphocytes in hirsute women: effects of cyproterone acetate and estradiol treatment. Amice, V., Bercovici, J.P., Nahoul, K., Hatahet, M.H., Amice, J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1989) [Pubmed]
  28. Androgen receptor characteristics in skin fibroblasts from hirsute women. Eil, C., Cutler, G.B., Loriaux, D.L. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of flutamide and metformin administered alone or in combination in dieting obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Gambineri, A., Pelusi, C., Genghini, S., Morselli-Labate, A.M., Cacciari, M., Pagotto, U., Pasquali, R. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Prostate-specific antigen in female serum, a potential new marker of androgen excess. Melegos, D.N., Yu, H., Ashok, M., Wang, C., Stanczyk, F., Diamandis, E.P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Specific CAPN10 gene haplotypes influence the clinical profile of polycystic ovary patients. Gonzalez, A., Abril, E., Roca, A., Aragón, M.J., Figueroa, M.J., Velarde, P., Ruiz, R., Fayez, O., Galán, J.J., Herreros, J.A., Real, L.M., Ruiz, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Towards selective Kir6.2/SUR1 potassium channel openers, medicinal chemistry and therapeutic perspectives. Hansen, J.B. Current medicinal chemistry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. Increased micronucleus frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Yesilada, E., Sahin, I., Ozcan, H., Yildirim, I.H., Yologlu, S., Taskapan, C. Eur. J. Endocrinol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. Abnormalities in the serum insulin-like growth factor-1 axis in women with hyperandrogenism. Escobar-Morreale, H.F., Serrano-Gotarredona, J., García-Robles, R., Varela, C., Sancho, J.M. Fertil. Steril. (1998) [Pubmed]
  35. Sensitization to insulin in adolescent girls to normalize hirsutism, hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinism after precocious pubarche. Ibáñez, L., Valls, C., Potau, N., Marcos, M.V., de Zegher, F. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2000) [Pubmed]
  36. Responses of serum androgen and insulin resistance to metformin and pioglitazone in obese, insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Ortega-González, C., Luna, S., Hernández, L., Crespo, G., Aguayo, P., Arteaga-Troncoso, G., Parra, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. On the association between valproate and polycystic ovary syndrome. Genton, P., Bauer, J., Duncan, S., Taylor, A.E., Balen, A.H., Eberle, A., Pedersen, B., Salas-Puig, X., Sauer, M.V. Epilepsia (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Cyclosporine in renal transplantation with hirsutism. Bennett, W.M., Serra, J., Fischer, S., Norman, D.J., Barry, J.M. Am. J. Kidney Dis. (1985) [Pubmed]
  39. Predictors of clinical response in hirsute women treated with spironolactone. Crosby, P.D., Rittmaster, R.S. Fertil. Steril. (1991) [Pubmed]
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