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Gene Review

GSTT1  -  glutathione S-transferase theta 1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: GST class-theta-1, Glutathione S-transferase theta-1, Glutathione transferase T1-1
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Disease relevance of GSTT1


Psychiatry related information on GSTT1


High impact information on GSTT1


Chemical compound and disease context of GSTT1


Biological context of GSTT1

  • Four polymorphisms showed significant association with PD: slow acetylator genotypes of NAT2 (PD:control OR = 1.36), allele >188bp of the MAOB (GT)n polymorphism (OR = 2.58), the deletion allele of GSTT1 (OR = 1.34), and A4336G of tRNAGlu (OR = 3.0) [18].
  • We also report a positive correlation between the null homozygote of GSTT1 with the risk of bladder cancer (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.32-4.98, P = 0.003) [19].
  • The protective effect of vegetables was only seen in those with deficient or intermediate GSTT1 predicted phenotype [OR 0.3, 95% confidence interval (0.1, 0.6), and OR 0.6 (0.4, 0.96), OR 1.4 (0.3, 2.4) for those with fast phenotype], and a similar result was observed for cruciferous vegetables [20].
  • Glutathione transferase genetic polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTT1) showed no association with cases compared with their siblings or unrelated controls [21].
  • We postulate that inherited gene deletion of GSTT1 and M1 may produce increased genotoxic susceptibility for erythroid and lymphoid cell respectively, following exposure to xenobiotics that are substrates for these enzymes [22].

Anatomical context of GSTT1


Associations of GSTT1 with chemical compounds


Enzymatic interactions of GSTT1

  • Individuals were genotyped for the Ile105Val variant of GSTP1 and the deleted variants of GSTT1 and GSTM1 [32].

Regulatory relationships of GSTT1

  • No differences were found in the prevalences of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes between alcoholics and the controls and no association was found between the rare CYP2E1 c2 allele and liver cirrhosis and pancreatitis [33].
  • In this meta-analysis involving 14 GSTM1 studies with 1539 cases and 1805 controls and nine GSTT1 studies with 746 cases and 834 controls, respectively, substantial heterogeneities among studies were found [34].
  • METHODS: Polymorphisms of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in 106 Japanese patients with primary SS and in 143 healthy controls were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction [35].

Other interactions of GSTT1

  • Allelic variation in genes encoding enzymes such as NADP(H) quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) that metabolize environmental toxicants predispose to subtypes of AML, including therapy-related AML [36].
  • Here, we present the results of a case-control study that investigated the effects that the genetic variants of the cytochrome (CYP)1A1, CYP1B1, glutathione-S-transferase (GST)M1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genes have on modifying the risk of smoking-related HNSCC [37].
  • We found no statistically significant associations between the null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1, and CYP1A1 and risk of gliomas [38].
  • Thus, we conducted a pilot case-control study to examine the association between CYP2E1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 genetic polymorphisms and esophageal cancer susceptibility [39].
  • The data demonstrate site-dependent associations between GSTT1 null, CCND1 GG, and CYP2D6 PM and tumor extension, differentiation, and nodes [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GSTT1


  1. Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of docetaxel: role of CYP3A, MDR1, and GST polymorphisms. Tran, A., Jullien, V., Alexandre, J., Rey, E., Rabillon, F., Girre, V., Dieras, V., Pons, G., Goldwasser, F., Tréluyer, J.M. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Glutathione-S-transferase M1, M3, T1 and P1 polymorphisms and susceptibility to non-small-cell lung cancer subtypes and hamartomas. Risch, A., Wikman, H., Thiel, S., Schmezer, P., Edler, L., Drings, P., Dienemann, H., Kayser, K., Schulz, V., Spiegelhalder, B., Bartsch, H. Pharmacogenetics (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Impact of GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and NAT2 genotypes on KRAS2 and TP53 gene mutations in colorectal cancer. Ferraz, J.M., Zinzindohoué, F., Lecomte, T., Cugnenc, P.H., Loriot, M.A., Beaune, P., Stücker, I., Berger, A., Laurent-Puig, P. Int. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. CYP1A1 Ile462Val and MPO G-463A interact to increase risk of adenocarcinoma but not squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Larsen, J.E., Colosimo, M.L., Yang, I.A., Bowman, R., Zimmerman, P.V., Fong, K.M. Carcinogenesis (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Association of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) null with numbers of basal cell carcinomas: use of a multivariate model to rank the relative importance of this polymorphism and those at other relevant loci. Clairmont, A., Sies, H., Ramachandran, S., Lear, J.T., Smith, A.G., Bowers, B., Jones, P.W., Fryer, A.A., Strange, R.C. Carcinogenesis (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 genetic polymorphisms, alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk. Zheng, T., Holford, T.R., Zahm, S.H., Owens, P.H., Boyle, P., Zhang, Y., Zhang, B., Wise, J.P., Stephenson, L.P., Ali-Osman, F. Br. J. Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Individual sensitivity to cytogenetic effects of 1,2:3,4-diepoxybutane in cultured human lymphocytes: influence of glutathione S-transferase M1, P1 and T1 genotypes. Landi, S., Norppa, H., Frenzilli, G., Cipollini, G., Ponzanelli, I., Barale, R., Hirvonen, A. Pharmacogenetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Determination of glutathione S-transferase mu and theta polymorphisms in neurological disease. Stroombergen, M.C., Waring, R.H. Human & experimental toxicology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Analysis of glutathione and vitamin C effects. Pitarque, M., Creus, A., Marcos, R. ScientificWorldJournal (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Maternal cigarette smoking, metabolic gene polymorphism, and infant birth weight. Wang, X., Zuckerman, B., Pearson, C., Kaufman, G., Chen, C., Wang, G., Niu, T., Wise, P.H., Bauchner, H., Xu, X. JAMA (2002) [Pubmed]
  11. A population-based, case-control study of polymorphisms in carcinogen-metabolizing genes, smoking, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma risk. Duell, E.J., Holly, E.A., Bracci, P.M., Liu, M., Wiencke, J.K., Kelsey, K.T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Association between glutathione S-transferase P1, T1, and M1 genetic polymorphism and survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Stoehlmacher, J., Park, D.J., Zhang, W., Groshen, S., Tsao-Wei, D.D., Yu, M.C., Lenz, H.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. The association of endometriosis risk and genetic polymorphisms involving dioxin detoxification enzymes: a systematic review. Guo, S.W. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Environmental tobacco smoke, genetic susceptibility, and risk of lung cancer in never-smoking women. Bennett, W.P., Alavanja, M.C., Blomeke, B., Vähäkangas, K.H., Castrén, K., Welsh, J.A., Bowman, E.D., Khan, M.A., Flieder, D.B., Harris, C.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. A population-based study of glutathione S-transferase M1, T1 and P1 genotypes and risk for lung cancer. Nazar-Stewart, V., Vaughan, T.L., Stapleton, P., Van Loo, J., Nicol-Blades, B., Eaton, D.L. Lung Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Human glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT1): cDNA cloning and the characterization of a genetic polymorphism. Pemble, S., Schroeder, K.R., Spencer, S.R., Meyer, D.J., Hallier, E., Bolt, H.M., Ketterer, B., Taylor, J.B. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. GST genotype may modify clinical phenotype in patients with Fanconi anaemia. Davies, S.M., Radloff, G.A., DeFor, T.E., Levran, O., Batish, S.D., Hanenberg, H., Auerbach, A.D. Br. J. Haematol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Variability and validity of polymorphism association studies in Parkinson's disease. Tan, E.K., Khajavi, M., Thornby, J.I., Nagamitsu, S., Jankovic, J., Ashizawa, T. Neurology (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Polymorphisms in DNA repair and metabolic genes in bladder cancer. Sanyal, S., Festa, F., Sakano, S., Zhang, Z., Steineck, G., Norming, U., Wijkström, H., Larsson, P., Kumar, R., Hemminki, K. Carcinogenesis (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Vegetable, fruit and meat consumption and potential risk modifying genes in relation to colorectal cancer. Turner, F., Smith, G., Sachse, C., Lightfoot, T., Garner, R.C., Wolf, C.R., Forman, D., Bishop, D.T., Barrett, J.H. Int. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Pharmacogenetic profile of xenobiotic enzyme metabolism in survivors of the Spanish toxic oil syndrome. Ladona, M.G., Izquierdo-Martinez, M., Posada de la Paz, M.P., de la Torre, R., Ampurdanés, C., Segura, J., Sanz, E.J. Environ. Health Perspect. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Glutathione S-transferase enzyme expression in hematopoietic cell lines implies a differential protective role for T1 and A1 isoenzymes in erythroid and for M1 in lymphoid lineages. Wang, L., Groves, M.J., Hepburn, M.D., Bowen, D.T. Haematologica (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. Single tube multiplex polymerase chain reaction genotype analysis of GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1: relation of genotypes to TP53 tumor status and clinicopathological variables in breast cancer patients. Nedelcheva Kristensen, V., Andersen, T.I., Erikstein, B., Geitvik, G., Skovlund, E., Nesland, J.M., Børresen-Dale, A.L. Pharmacogenetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Cyclin D1, glutathione S-transferase, and cytochrome P450 genotypes and outcome in patients with upper aerodigestive tract cancers: assessment of the importance of individual genes using multivariate analysis. Matthias, C., Jahnke, V., Jones, P.W., Hoban, P.R., Alldersea, J.E., Worrall, S.F., Fryer, A.A., Strange, R.C. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Risk of atherosclerosis: interaction of smoking and glutathione S-transferase genes. Olshan, A.F., Li, R., Pankow, J.S., Bray, M., Tyroler, H.A., Chambless, L.E., Boerwinkle, E., Pittman, G.S., Bell, D.A. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Carotenoids/vitamin C and smoking-related bladder cancer. Castelao, J.E., Yuan, J.M., Gago-Dominguez, M., Skipper, P.L., Tannenbaum, S.R., Chan, K.K., Watson, M.A., Bell, D.A., Coetzee, G.A., Ross, R.K., Yu, M.C. Int. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Genetic polymorphism of drug-metabolizing enzymes and styrene-induced DNA damage. Buschini, A., De Palma, G., Poli, P., Martino, A., Rossi, C., Mozzoni, P., Scotti, E., Buzio, L., Bergamaschi, E., Mutti, A. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. (2003) [Pubmed]
  28. Influence of polymorphisms of the human glutathione transferases and cytochrome P450 2E1 enzyme on the metabolism and toxicity of ethylene oxide and acrylonitrile. Thier, R., Balkenhol, H., Lewalter, J., Selinski, S., Dommermuth, A., Bolt, H.M. Mutat. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases in French vinyl chloride workers. Li, Y., Zhou, M., Marion, M.J., Lee, S., Brandt-Rauf, P.W. Biomarkers (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Genetic polymorphisms and chromosome damage. Norppa, H. International journal of hygiene and environmental health. (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Arsenic methylation, GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1 polymorphisms, and skin lesions. McCarty, K.M., Chen, Y.C., Quamruzzaman, Q., Rahman, M., Mahiuddin, G., Hsueh, Y.M., Su, L., Smith, T., Ryan, L., Christiani, D.C. Environ. Health Perspect. (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. Increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes is associated with the glutathione S transferase theta-null genotype: a Go-DARTS study. Doney, A.S., Lee, S., Leese, G.P., Morris, A.D., Palmer, C.N. Circulation (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 and cytochromes P450 CYP2E1 and CYP1A1 and susceptibility to cirrhosis or pancreatitis in alcoholics. Burim, R.V., Canalle, R., Martinelli, A.d.e. .L., Takahashi, C.S. Mutagenesis (2004) [Pubmed]
  34. Glutathione S-transferases M1/T1 gene polymorphisms and endometriosis: a meta-analysis of genetic association studies. Guo, S.W. Mol. Hum. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Association of the glutathione S-transferase M1 homozygous null genotype with susceptibility to Sjögren's syndrome in Japanese individuals. Morinobu, A., Kanagawa, S., Koshiba, M., Sugai, S., Kumagai, S. Arthritis Rheum. (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. CYP1A1*2B (Val) allele is overrepresented in a subgroup of acute myeloid leukemia patients with poor-risk karyotype associated with NRAS mutation, but not associated with FLT3 internal tandem duplication. Bowen, D.T., Frew, M.E., Rollinson, S., Roddam, P.L., Dring, A., Smith, M.T., Langabeer, S.E., Morgan, G.J. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Association of CYP1B1 codon 432 mutant allele in head and neck squamous cell cancer is reflected by somatic mutations of p53 in tumor tissue. Ko, Y., Abel, J., Harth, V., Bröde, P., Antony, C., Donat, S., Fischer, H.P., Ortiz-Pallardo, M.E., Thier, R., Sachinidis, A., Vetter, H., Bolt, H.M., Herberhold, C., Brüning, T. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase mu and theta, N-acetyltransferase, and CYP1A1 and risk of gliomas. Trizna, Z., de Andrade, M., Kyritsis, A.P., Briggs, K., Levin, V.A., Bruner, J.M., Wei, Q., Bondy, M.L. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  39. Susceptibility to esophageal cancer and genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases T1, P1, and M1 and cytochrome P450 2E1. Lin, D.X., Tang, Y.M., Peng, Q., Lu, S.X., Ambrosone, C.B., Kadlubar, F.F. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  40. Prognostic significance of the null genotype of glutathione S-transferase-T1 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia: increased early death after chemotherapy. Naoe, T., Tagawa, Y., Kiyoi, H., Kodera, Y., Miyawaki, S., Asou, N., Kuriyama, K., Kusumoto, S., Shimazaki, C., Saito, K., Akiyama, H., Motoji, T., Nishimura, M., Shinagawa, K., Ueda, R., Saito, H., Ohno, R. Leukemia (2002) [Pubmed]
  41. Glutathione-S-transferase gene polymorphisms in colorectal cancer patients: interaction between GSTM1 and GSTM3 allele variants as a risk-modulating factor. Loktionov, A., Watson, M.A., Gunter, M., Stebbings, W.S., Speakman, C.T., Bingham, S.A. Carcinogenesis (2001) [Pubmed]
  42. Impact of genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 2E1 and glutathione S-transferases M1, T1, and P1 on susceptibility to esophageal cancer among high-risk individuals in China. Tan, W., Song, N., Wang, G.Q., Liu, Q., Tang, H.J., Kadlubar, F.F., Lin, D.X. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  43. Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms and risk of ovarian cancer: a HuGE review. Coughlin, S.S., Hall, I.J. Genet. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
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