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Gene Review

KRT17  -  keratin 17, type I

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 39.1, CK-17, Cytokeratin-17, K17, Keratin, type I cytoskeletal 17, ...
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Disease relevance of KRT17


Psychiatry related information on KRT17

  • Baseline currents were similar for both sexes: 21.4 +/- 1.6 mA for pain threshold and 39.1 +/- 2.3 mA for pain tolerance [6].
  • RESULTS: A total of 43.4, 39.1, and 17.5% of respondents without disabilities were active at a recommended level, insufficiently active, and inactive, respectively, taking into account nonoccupational physical activities [7].
  • METHODS: Nine patients with PC (three each with frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal degeneration [CBD], and primary progressive aphasia [PPA]) and five healthy subjects underwent (1)H-CSI [8].
  • Interestingly, the cortical response time of the medial hamstring and the medial quadriceps muscles in the isokinetic group slowed significantly, by 39.1 and 32.4 msec, respectively, after 6 weeks of training [9].
  • The densities of Pick bodies (PB), Pick cells (PC), senile plaques (SP) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) in the frontal and temporal lobe were determined in ten patients diagnosed with Pick's disease (PD) [10].

High impact information on KRT17

  • Patients were categorized according to the hematocrit on admission (5.0 to 24.0 percent, 24.1 to 27.0 percent, 27.1 to 30.0 percent, 30.1 to 33.0 percent, 33.1 to 36.0 percent, 36.1 to 39.0 percent, or 39.1 to 48.0 percent), and data were evaluated to determine whether there was an association between the use of transfusion and 30-day mortality [11].
  • Keratin 16 and keratin 17 mutations cause pachyonychia congenita [12].
  • Here, we show that a heterozygous missense mutation in the helix initiation motif of K17 (Asn92Asp) co-segregates with the disease in this kindred [12].
  • PC2, the high-molecular weight constituent of the potent USA transcriptional coactivator fraction, was identified as a Mediator-like complex [13].
  • Additionally, group C monoclonal antibody PC-2 was unique in that it showed partial reactivity against the clonable progenitor for the erythroid series (BFU-E) [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of KRT17

  • However, there was no change in serum nitrogen oxide levels (42.1 +/- 24.5 vs. 39.1 +/- 16.6 micromol/liter, p = 0.61), nor was there an effect of L-arginine on flow-mediated dilation during hyperemia (3.8 +/- 3.0% vs. 4.9 +/- 4.8%, p = 0.53) compared with placebo [15].
  • Among seven schizophrenic patients subject to water intoxication (six men and one woman, mean age 39.1 +/- 6.9 years), we measured serum sodium, plasma arginine vasopressin, and urine osmolality at 7 a.m. and 4 p.m. on eight consecutive Thursdays [16].
  • To this end, MCF-7 cells as well as a series of breast carcinomas (n = 10; fresh frozen as well as formalin fixed and paraffin embedded) were stained using a panel of different antibodies directed against the Ki67-Ag (DAKO/PC, MIB-1, Ki-S5, and poly-Ki67) for a 3-parameter cytokeratin/Ki67-Ag/DNA FCM analysis [17].
  • In singleton pregnancies the gestational length and birth weight of the newborn infants were greater in the steroid treatment group (N = 23, 39.1 +/- 0.3 weeks, 3,460 +/- 119 gm) than in the ritodrine group (N = 24, 37.7 +/- 0.4 weeks, 3,106 +/- 118 gm) [18].
  • 14 full-term neonates with a mean birth weight of 3,240 g and a mean gestational age of 39.1 weeks were administered metoclopramide (MTC), a specific dopamine antagonist, in a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/day to treat delayed gastric emptying, regurgitation and abdominal distension [19].

Biological context of KRT17

  • From these findings and from immunohistological observations, CK 17 synthesis seems to be a marker of basal cell differentiation in complex epithelia and therefore indicative of a certain type of epithelial "stem cells" [20].
  • Because of its unusual expression pattern in normal and diseased states and because of the potential importance of CK 17 in tumor diagnosis, we have characterized the gene(s) and its cDNA-derived amino acid sequence [20].
  • A cDNA clone encoding CK 17 was isolated from a HeLa cDNA library and used for the determination of the amino acid sequence, for studies of expression and for the screening of human genomic libraries [20].
  • The 5 kbp CK 17 gene with 8 exons and 7 introns encodes a polypeptide of 432 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 48,000 [20].
  • Only one of these loci contains the functional CK 17 gene which is located only approximately 5 kbp 5'-upstream of the CK 16 gene, whereas the other two contain unprocessed CK 17 pseudogenes [20].

Anatomical context of KRT17


Associations of KRT17 with chemical compounds

  • Multiple acetylated lysine residues have been identified in the N-terminal domain of H2B (K6, K11, K16, K17, K21, and K22), but little is known about how these modifications regulate transcription [25].
  • The result that RA induced expression of keratins K6, K16, and K17, as commonly expressed in hyperproliferative epidermis, is consistent with the notion that retinoids increase epidermal cell proliferation in the basal and/or lower spinous layers [26].
  • In summary, our results document that acute or chronic barrier disruption leads to expression of keratins K6, K16, and K17 and to a premature expression of involucrin [27].
  • The average molecular areas at this inner surface are Spl = 68.5 A2/molecule for phospholipids and Sc= 39.1 A2/molecule for cholesterol [28].
  • Labeling of metabolic pool with 14C-adenine revealed a mean decrease in the adenylate energy charge of 2.0 /+- 0.4% in 12 of 16 stored PC, with a lower ATP and higher hypoxanthine labeling in stored as compared to fresh platelets [29].

Other interactions of KRT17

  • Biochemically, using 2-DE and immunoblotting, stratified epithelial keratins K5/K14 and large amounts of K17 were present in all cases [30].
  • Long-range restriction mapping analysis of clone 211F11 and of two smaller YAC clones that were also isolated with KRT13-specific primers, suggests that KRT13, 14, 15, 16 and their linked type I genes KRT17 and 19, are contained in less than 150 kb of genomic DNA [31].
  • The comedone wall showed a pattern of keratin expression similar to that of the upper follicle, except that there was, in addition, expression of keratins K6 and K16 suprabasally, and panepithelial expression of K17 in the comedone wall [32].
  • The monophasic tumors showed limited positivity for complex epithelial keratins: K14 (28%) and K17 (10%) [33].
  • It has been demonstrated that PC-2 is associated with germline mutations in the keratin 17 (K17) gene and in its expression partner keratin 6b [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of KRT17


  1. A novel mutation in the second half of the keratin 17 1A domain in a large pedigree with delayed-onset pachyonychia congenita type 2. Xiao, S.X., Feng, Y.G., Ren, X.R., Tan, S.S., Li, L., Wang, J.M., Shi, Y.Z. J. Invest. Dermatol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Keratins (K16 and K17) as markers of keratinocyte hyperproliferation in psoriasis in vivo and in vitro. Leigh, I.M., Navsaria, H., Purkis, P.E., McKay, I.A., Bowden, P.E., Riddle, P.N. Br. J. Dermatol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Keratin 17 is expressed during the course of SLS-induced irritant contact dermatitis, but unlike keratin 16, the degree of expression is unrelated to the density of dividing keratinocytes. Willis, C.M., Reiche, L., Wilkinson, J.D. Contact Derm. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Keratin subsets in papillary and follicular thyroid lesions. A paraffin section analysis with diagnostic implications. Miettinen, M., Kovatich, A.J., Kärkkäinen, P. Virchows Arch. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Prognostic relevance of basal cytokeratin expression in operable breast cancer. Potemski, P., Kusinska, R., Watala, C., Pluciennik, E., Bednarek, A.K., Kordek, R. Oncology (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Sex differences in morphine analgesia: an experimental study in healthy volunteers. Sarton, E., Olofsen, E., Romberg, R., den Hartigh, J., Kest, B., Nieuwenhuijs, D., Burm, A., Teppema, L., Dahan, A. Anesthesiology (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Physical activity among adults >or=50 yr with and without disabilities, BRFSS 2001. Brown, D.R., Yore, M.M., Ham, S.A., Macera, C.A. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Proton chemical shift imaging in pick complex. Kizu, O., Yamada, K., Nishimura, T. AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Neuromuscular adaptations in isokinetic, isotonic, and agility training programs. Wojtys, E.M., Huston, L.J., Taylor, P.D., Bastian, S.D. The American journal of sports medicine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Quantification of pathological lesions in the frontal and temporal lobe of ten patients diagnosed with Pick's disease. Armstrong, R.A., Cairns, N.J., Lantos, P.L. Acta Neuropathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Blood transfusion in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction. Wu, W.C., Rathore, S.S., Wang, Y., Radford, M.J., Krumholz, H.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Keratin 16 and keratin 17 mutations cause pachyonychia congenita. McLean, W.H., Rugg, E.L., Lunny, D.P., Morley, S.M., Lane, E.B., Swensson, O., Dopping-Hepenstal, P.J., Griffiths, W.A., Eady, R.A., Higgins, C. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. The USA-derived transcriptional coactivator PC2 is a submodule of TRAP/SMCC and acts synergistically with other PCs. Malik, S., Gu, W., Wu, W., Qin, J., Roeder, R.G. Mol. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Human megakaryocytes. V. Changes in the phenotypic profile of differentiating megakaryocytes. Levene, R.B., Lamaziere, J.M., Broxmeyer, H.E., Lu, L., Rabellino, E.M. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of oral L-arginine on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and markers of inflammation in healthy postmenopausal women. Blum, A., Hathaway, L., Mincemoyer, R., Schenke, W.H., Kirby, M., Csako, G., Waclawiw, M.A., Panza, J.A., Cannon, R.O. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Diurnal variation in water homeostasis among schizophrenic patients subject to water intoxication. Vieweg, W.V., Robertson, G.L., Godleski, L.S., Yank, G.R. Schizophr. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Multi-parameter flow cytometric analysis with detection of the Ki67-Ag in paraffin embedded mammary carcinomas. Leers, M.P., Theunissen, P.H., Ramaekers, F.C., Schutte, B. Cytometry. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Suppression of threatened premature labor by administration of cortisol and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate: a comparison with ritodrine. Kauppila, A., Hartikainen-Sorri, A.L., Jänne, O., Tuimala, R., Järvinen, P.A. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of metoclopramide treatment on thyrotropin and prolactin levels in sick neonates. Ruppert, F., Sulyok, E., Sárkány, I., Zámbó, K., Csaba, I.F. Biol. Neonate (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of the human gene encoding cytokeratin 17 and its expression pattern. Troyanovsky, S.M., Leube, R.E., Franke, W.W. Eur. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Increased expression of keratin 16 causes anomalies in cytoarchitecture and keratinization in transgenic mouse skin. Takahashi, K., Folmer, J., Coulombe, P.A. J. Cell Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Coexpression of cytokeratins typical for columnar and squamous differentiation in sinonasal inverted papillomas. Schwerer, M.J., Kraft, K., Baczako, K., Maier, H. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Keratin 17 mutations cause either steatocystoma multiplex or pachyonychia congenita type 2. Covello, S.P., Smith, F.J., Sillevis Smitt, J.H., Paller, A.S., Munro, C.S., Jonkman, M.F., Uitto, J., McLean, W.H. Br. J. Dermatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. HLA DR B1*04, *07-restricted epitopes on Keratin 17 for autoreactive T cells in psoriasis. Shen, Z., Wang, G., Fan, J.Y., Li, W., Liu, Y.F. J. Dermatol. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Deciphering the Roles of the Histone H2B N-Terminal Domain in Genome-Wide Transcription. Parra, M.A., Kerr, D., Fahy, D., Pouchnik, D.J., Wyrick, J.J. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of topical retinoids on cytoskeletal proteins: implications for retinoid effects on epidermal differentiation. Eichner, R., Kahn, M., Capetola, R.J., Gendimenico, G.J., Mezick, J.A. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Expression of epidermal keratins and the cornified envelope protein involucrin is influenced by permeability barrier disruption. Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage, S., Aschauer, H., Schmook, F.P., Jensen, J.M., Meingassner, J.G., Proksch, E. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. Structure of human serum lipoproteins inferred from compositional analysis. Shen, B.W., Scanu, A.M., Kézdy, F.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  29. Acquired granular pool defect in stored platelets. Rao, A.K., Niewiarowski, S., Murphy, S. Blood (1981) [Pubmed]
  30. Biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of keratin expression in basal cell carcinoma. Yoshikawa, K., Katagata, Y., Kondo, S. J. Dermatol. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Human type I cytokeratin genes are a compact cluster. Ceratto, N., Dobkin, C., Carter, M., Jenkins, E., Yao, X.L., Cassiman, J.J., Aly, M.S., Bosco, P., Leube, R., Langbein, L., Feo, S., Romano, V. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Keratin expression in pilosebaceous epithelia in truncal skin of acne patients. Hughes, B.R., Morris, C., Cunliffe, W.J., Leigh, I.M. Br. J. Dermatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Patterns of keratin polypeptides in 110 biphasic, monophasic, and poorly differentiated synovial sarcomas. Miettinen, M., Limon, J., Niezabitowski, A., Lasota, J. Virchows Arch. (2000) [Pubmed]
  34. Mutation report: identification of a germline mutation in keratin 17 in a family with pachyonychia congenita type 2. Celebi, J.T., Tanzi, E.L., Yao, Y.J., Michael, E.J., Peacocke, M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Missense mutations in keratin 17 cause either pachyonychia congenita type 2 or a phenotype resembling steatocystoma multiplex. Smith, F.J., Corden, L.D., Rugg, E.L., Ratnavel, R., Leigh, I.M., Moss, C., Tidman, M.J., Hohl, D., Huber, M., Kunkeler, L., Munro, C.S., Lane, E.B., McLean, W.H. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  36. Special program of differentiation expressed in keratinocytes of human haarscheiben: an analysis of individual cytokeratin polypeptides. Moll, I., Troyanovsky, S.M., Moll, R. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  37. Cytokeratin expression patterns for distinction of odontogenic keratocysts from dentigerous and radicular cysts. Stoll, C., Stollenwerk, C., Riediger, D., Mittermayer, C., Alfer, J. J. Oral Pathol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
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