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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
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Disease relevance of Loligo


High impact information on Loligo

  • We now report that injection of Quin-2 into squid (Loligo forbesi) axons can almost completely abolish one component of Ca2+ entry--intracellular Na+ (Nai)-dependent Ca2+ inflow, which occurs via Na/Ca exchange [3].
  • We demonstrate that alternatively spliced RNAs derived from a single Pax-6 gene in the squid (Loligo opalescens) are expressed in the embryonic eye, olfactory organ, brain, and arms [4].
  • Two lysine isoacceptor tRNAs corresponding to the codons AAA and AAG, respectively, were isolated from squid (Loligo bleekeri), and their nucleotide sequences were determined [5].
  • Adenylate kinase (ATP:AMP phosphotransferase, EC from the mantle muscle of the squid, Loligo pealeii, was purified over 170-fold to homogeneity as judged by polyacrylamide and starch gel electrophoresis [6].
  • In squid (Loligo bleekeri) mitochondria, the two 3'-terminal nucleotides (G72-G73) of the tRNA(Tyr) gene overlap with the two 5'-terminal nucleotides (G1-G2) of the downstream tRNA(Cys) gene [7].

Biological context of Loligo


Anatomical context of Loligo


Associations of Loligo with chemical compounds


Gene context of Loligo

  • Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is a calcium-dependent six-fold beta-propeller protein structurally similar to the di-isopropylfluorophosphatase (DFPase) found in the squid Loligo vulgaris [22].
  • Todarodes rhodopsin contained characteristic sequences of PPQGY repeated in the C-terminal region, as reported in Loligo and octopus rhodopsins [23].
  • Here we report the cDNA cloning and characterization of a 48-kDa visual arrestin from squid (Loligo pealei) [24].
  • Three major polypeptides co-purify with neurofilaments from squid (Loligo forbesi) axoplasm: P60 (apparent Mr 60,000), P200 (apparent Mr 200,000) and Band 1 (apparent Mr 400,000) [25].
  • The outer segments of Loligo contain retinochrome and metarhodopsin in addition to rhodopsin, whether squids are kept in the dark or in the light [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Loligo


  1. Pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins are transported toward synaptic terminals by fast axonal transport. Vogel, S.S., Chin, G.J., Schwartz, J.H., Reese, T.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparison of DFP-hydrolyzing enzyme purified from head ganglion and hepatopancreas of squid (Loligo pealei) by means of isoelectric focusing. Garden, J.M., Hause, S.K., Hoskin, F.C., Roush, A.H. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C, Comp. Pharmacol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Intracellular Ca indicator Quin-2 inhibits Ca2+ inflow via Na/Ca exchange in squid axon. Allen, T.J., Baker, P.F. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Squid Pax-6 and eye development. Tomarev, S.I., Callaerts, P., Kos, L., Zinovieva, R., Halder, G., Gehring, W., Piatigorsky, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. Highly specific and efficient cleavage of squid tRNA(Lys) catalyzed by magnesium ions. Matsuo, M., Yokogawa, T., Nishikawa, K., Watanabe, K., Okada, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Purification and properties of squid mantle adenylate kinase. Role of NADH in control of the enzyme. Storey, K.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  7. RNA editing in the acceptor stem of squid mitochondrial tRNA(Tyr). Tomita, K., Ueda, T., Watanabe, K. Nucleic Acids Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Voltage dependence of the apparent affinity for external Na(+) of the backward-running sodium pump. De Weer, P., Gadsby, D.C., Rakowski, R.F. J. Gen. Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. Light-regulated biochemical events in invertebrate photoreceptors. 2. Light-regulated phosphorylation of rhodopsin and phosphoinositides in squid photoreceptor membranes. Vandenberg, C.A., Montal, M. Biochemistry (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Contribution of sodium pump to resting potential of squid giant axon. de Weer, P., Geduldig, D. Am. J. Physiol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. 7-Methylguanosine at the anticodon wobble position of squid mitochondrial tRNA(Ser)GCU: molecular basis for assignment of AGA/AGG codons as serine in invertebrate mitochondria. Tomita, K., Ueda, T., Watanabe, K. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular cloning and expression of a full-length cDNA encoding acetylcholinesterase in optic lobes of the squid Loligo opalescens: a new member of the cholinesterase family resistant to diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Talesa, V., Grauso, M., Arpagaus, M., Giovannini, E., Romani, R., Rosi, G. J. Neurochem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation, cloning, and characterisation of a trp homologue from squid (Loligo forbesi) photoreceptor membranes. Monk, P.D., Carne, A., Liu, S.H., Ford, J.W., Keen, J.N., Findlay, J.B. J. Neurochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Postsynaptic activation at the squid giant synapse by photolytic release of L-glutamate from a 'caged' L-glutamate. Corrie, J.E., DeSantis, A., Katayama, Y., Khodakhah, K., Messenger, J.B., Ogden, D.C., Trentham, D.R. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. Acetylcholine mediates excitatory input to chromatophore motoneurons in the squid, Loligo pealeii. Smotherman, M. Biol. Bull. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Intercellular bridges in the embryo of the Atlantic squid, Loligo pealei. I. Cytoplasmic continuity and tissue differentiation. Cartwright, J., Arnold, J.M. Journal of embryology and experimental morphology. (1980) [Pubmed]
  17. Uptake and binding of calcium by axoplasm isolated from giant axons of Loligo and Myxicola. Baker, P.F., Schlaepfer, W.W. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Light-induced changes in the content of inositol phosphates in squid (Loligo pealei) retina. Brown, J.E., Watkins, D.C., Malbon, C.C. Biochem. J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. 3-O-methylglucose transport in internally dialysed giant axons of Loligo. Baker, P.F., Carruthers, A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Proceedings: Calcium uptake by axoplasm extruded from giant axons of Loligo. Baker, P.F., Schlaepfer, W. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. The effect of temperature on the nerve-blocking action of benzyl alcohol on the squid giant axon. Harper, A.A., Macdonald, A.G., Wann, K.T. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. Analysis of active-site amino-acid residues of human serum paraoxonase using competitive substrates. Yeung, D.T., Lenz, D.E., Cerasoli, D.M. FEBS J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of cDNA for rhodopsin of the squid Todarodes pacificus. Hara-Nishimura, I., Kondo, M., Nishimura, M., Hara, R., Hara, T. FEBS Lett. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Squid visual arrestin: cDNA cloning and calcium-dependent phosphorylation by rhodopsin kinase (SQRK). Mayeenuddin, L.H., Mitchell, J. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Squid neurofilaments. Phosphorylation and Ca2+-dependent proteolysis in situ. Brown, A., Eagles, P.A. Biochem. J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Distribution of rhodopsin and retinochrome in the squid retina. Hara, T., Hara, R. J. Gen. Physiol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Insights into the reaction mechanism of the diisopropyl fluorophosphatase from Loligo vulgaris by means of kinetic studies, chemical modification and site-directed mutagenesis. Hartleib, J., Rüterjans, H. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2001) [Pubmed]
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