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Chemical Compound Review

Quin-2     2-[[2-[[2- (bis(carboxymethyl)amino)- 5...

Synonyms: Quin2, Quin 2, SureCN26379, AG-L-66618, AC1L2XLH, ...
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Disease relevance of Quin 2

  • Cytoplasmic free calcium concentration (Ca2+)i was measured in neutrophils from patients with the classical X-linked form of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) by trapping the fluorescent calcium indicator Quin 2 in intact cells [1].
  • We employed an intracellularly trapped fluorescent probe of Ca2+, Quin 2, to measure [Ca2+]i in GH3 cells, cloned rat pituitary tumor cells [2].
  • Intradermal or spinal injection of intracellular calcium modulators (TMB-8 and Quin-2), which had no effect on nociception in control rats, significantly attenuated and together eliminated ddC and suramin-induced mechanical hypersensitivity [3].
  • To test this hypothesis directly, we measured the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in two hormone-responsive human (SaOS-2 and G-292) and two rat osteosarcoma cell lines (Ros 25/1 and Ros 17/2.8) and in primary cultures of bone cells from neonatal mouse calvaria using the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator Quin 2 [4].
  • These results suggest that Quin 2 causes toxicity by chelating iron or by activating some cellular process(es) that is dependent on the presence of iron or Ca++ [5].

High impact information on Quin 2

  • A major requirement of any intracellular Ca2+ indicator is that it should not disturb intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and Quin-2 is generally considered to be satisfactory in this respect [6].
  • This constraint on cell size was removed by the development of the fluorescent Ca2+ -sensitive dye Quin-2 and its acetoxymethyl ester, which can be introduced into a wide range of cell types [6].
  • Using the calcium-sensitive probe Quin 2/AM, FMLP induced an increase in fluorescence of up to 51% in adult PMN (10) [7].
  • Using the fluorescent dye Quin 2, we have investigated the effects of 1,25(OH)2D and 24,25(OH)2D on cytosolic calcium levels in hepatocytes [8].
  • The cytoplasmic ionized calcium was measured with the fluorescent probe, Quin 2, which indicated a resting level of 83 nM free calcium in unadhered monocytes [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Quin 2


Biological context of Quin 2

  • Prevention of the rise in cytosolic Ca2+ normally associated with platelet activation with the permeant Ca2+ chelator, Quin-2, inhibits formation of lamellipodial networks but not filopodial bundles after glass contact and reduces the cytochalasin B-sensitive nucleation activity by 60% after thrombin treatment [12].
  • Quin-2 loading inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport (IC50, 26 microM quin-2 AM) without affecting basal activity [13].
  • Use of the fluorescent calcium chelator Quin-2 and consideration of the ATP concentration dependence on the unfolding rate has allowed the intrinsic kinetics to be linked to the accepted reaction scheme for actin denaturation [14].
  • Platelet aggregation induced by PdBu plus adrenaline was not inhibited by a high intracellular concentration of the calcium chelator Quin-2 [15].
  • The effect of the intracellular calcium chelator Quin-2 on the platelet phosphoinositide metabolism, protein phosphorylation and morphology [16].

Anatomical context of Quin 2

  • Total calcium content, determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, Ca2+ influx, and cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ( [Ca]i), estimated by a method involving the incorporation of a Ca2+ chelator (Quin 2), were measured in erythrocytes from beta-thalassemic (beta-thal) and hemoglobin C (CC) patients [17].
  • Blockage of cytosolic calcium increases induced by thrombin by loading with the cell permeant calcium chelator Quin-2 AM inhibited GPIb-IX centralization by 70%, but did not prevent its association with the activated cytoskeleton [18].
  • Studies show that the chlorotetracycline technique is useful for the monitoring of calcium uptake and release by the platelet organelles, and suggests that the Quin 2/chlorotetracycline technique will be useful as a diagnostic of both physiological and pathological activation mechanisms [19].
  • If the macrophages were loaded with high doses of Quin 2 or another intracellular chelator, TMB-8, M phi-CF production decreased and cytotoxic activity was impaired [20].
  • To better understand the relation between cell calcium and exocytotic secretion, a quantitative dependence of adrenal catecholamine secretion on cytosolic free calcium has been determined for isolated, intact, bovine chromaffin cells, using the fluorescent probe Quin-2 [21].

Associations of Quin 2 with other chemical compounds

  • Chelation of extracellular calcium by EGTA prevented the CO2-induced rise in cell calcium measured with the intracellular fluorescent dyes Quin 2 or Fura 2 and also prevented recovery of cell pH [22].
  • When the change in cell calcium was buffered by loading the cells with high concentrations of Quin 2, the CO2-induced decrease in pH did not return back to basal levels [22].
  • We have studied the changes in membrane-bound and cytoplasmic calcium in PMN and PMN devoid of granules and nucleus by quantifying changes in chlorotetracycline (CTC) and Quin 2 fluorescence and comparing their relation to O(2) release [23].
  • Ca2+ release triggered by inositol trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) has been measured in saponin-permeabilized hepatocytes with 45Ca2+ or Quin 2 [24].
  • However, the initial EGF-stimulated formation of inositol phosphates was substantially diminished in cells loaded with the Ca2+ chelator Quin 2/AM [25].

Gene context of Quin 2

  • Inhibition of IL-1 production by interfering with intracellular Ca2+ trafficking in Quin 2/AM-loaded monocytes may be associated with the inhibition of PKC and calmodulin activity [26].
  • When monocytes were labelled with Quin 2/AM, IL-1 production by monocytes stimulated with PT and LPS was markedly suppressed [26].
  • Intracellular free calcium concentrations were measured by Quin-2 fluorescence assays in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the canine C5a receptor [27].
  • The concentration of free intracellular Ca2+ ions is also affected by IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma activation, as monitored by the fluorescent probe, Quin 2 [28].
  • Using the chromophoric Ca2+ chelators Quin 2 and 5,5'-Br2BAPTA, we have now determined the Ca2+ affinity of recombinant fragments containing EGF modules 1-3, 1-4, 2-3, and 2-4 [29].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Quin 2


  1. Cytosolic free calcium changes induced by chemotactic peptide in neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease. Lew, P.D., Wollheim, C., Seger, R.A., Pozzan, T. Blood (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulates biphasic elevation of cytoplasmic free calcium in GH3 cells. Further evidence that TRH mobilizes cellular and extracellular Ca2+. Gershengorn, M.C., Thaw, C. Endocrinology (1985) [Pubmed]
  3. Novel mechanism of enhanced nociception in a model of AIDS therapy-induced painful peripheral neuropathy in the rat. Joseph, E.K., Chen, X., Khasar, S.G., Levine, J.D. Pain (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Measurement of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentrations in human and rat osteosarcoma cells: actions of bone resorption-stimulating hormones. Boland, C.J., Fried, R.M., Tashjian, A.H. Endocrinology (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Involvement of calcium and iron in Quin 2 toxicity to isolated hepatocytes. Carpenter-Deyo, L., Reed, D.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Intracellular Ca indicator Quin-2 inhibits Ca2+ inflow via Na/Ca exchange in squid axon. Allen, T.J., Baker, P.F. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Defective membrane potential changes in neutrophils from human neonates. Sacchi, F., Hill, H.R. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. 1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D increases hepatocyte cytosolic calcium levels. A potential regulator of vitamin D-25-hydroxylase. Baran, D.T., Milne, M.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1986) [Pubmed]
  9. Calcium exchange and ionized cytoplasmic calcium in resting and activated human monocytes. Scully, S.P., Segel, G.B., Lichtman, M.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  10. Characterization of distinct phospholipases mediating bradykinin and noradrenaline hyperalgesia. Taiwo, Y.O., Heller, P.H., Levine, J.D. Neuroscience (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Influence of cadmium ions on endothelin-1 binding and calcium signaling in rat glioma C6 cells. Koschel, K., Meissner, N.N., Tas, P.W. Toxicol. Lett. (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Mechanisms of actin rearrangements mediating platelet activation. Hartwig, J.H. J. Cell Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  13. Chelation of intracellular calcium blocks insulin action in the adipocyte. Pershadsingh, H.A., Shade, D.L., Delfert, D.M., McDonald, J.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Unfolding energetics of G-alpha-actin: a discrete intermediate can be re-folded to the native state by CCT. Altschuler, G.M., Klug, D.R., Willison, K.R. J. Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Platelet aggregation induced by alpha 2-adrenoceptor and protein kinase C activation. A novel synergism. Siess, W., Lapetina, E.G. Biochem. J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. The effect of the intracellular calcium chelator Quin-2 on the platelet phosphoinositide metabolism, protein phosphorylation and morphology. de Chaffoy de Courcelles, D., Roevens, P., Verheyen, F., Van Belle, H., De Clerck, F. Thromb. Haemost. (1987) [Pubmed]
  17. Ca2+ permeability and cytosolic Ca2+ concentration are not impaired in beta-thalassemic and hemoglobin C erythrocytes. Rhoda, M.D., Galacteros, F., Beuzard, Y., Giraud, F. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  18. Thrombin-induced GPIb-IX centralization on the platelet surface requires actin assembly and myosin II activation. Kovacsovics, T.J., Hartwig, J.H. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Intracellular calcium storage and release in the human platelet. Chlorotetracycline as a continuous monitor. Jy, W., Haynes, D.H. Circ. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Lipopolysaccharide-mediated macrophage activation: the role of calcium in the generation of tumoricidal activity. Drysdale, B.E., Yapundich, R.A., Shin, M.L., Shin, H.S. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Calcium mobilization and catecholamine secretion in adrenal chromaffin cells. A Quin-2 fluorescence study. Kao, L.S., Schneider, A.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Regulation of cell pH by Ca+2-mediated exocytotic insertion of H+-ATPases. van Adelsberg, J., Al-Awqati, Q. J. Cell Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  23. Neutrophil cytoplasts: relationships of superoxide release and calcium pools. Torres, M., Coates, T.D. Blood (1984) [Pubmed]
  24. Characteristics of inositol trisphosphate-mediated Ca2+ release from permeabilized hepatocytes. Joseph, S.K., Williamson, J.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Regulation of epidermal growth factor-stimulated formation of inositol phosphates in A-431 cells by calcium and protein kinase C. Wahl, M., Carpenter, G. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Effect of protein kinase C inhibitor (H-7) and calmodulin antagonist (W-7) on pertussis toxin-induced IL-1 production by human adherent monocytes. Comparison with lipopolysaccharide as a stimulator of IL-1 production. Taniguchi, H., Sakano, T., Hamasaki, T., Kashiwa, H., Ueda, K. Immunology (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Cloning and functional expression of the canine anaphylatoxin C5a receptor. Evidence for high interspecies variability. Perret, J.J., Raspe, E., Vassart, G., Parmentier, M. Biochem. J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of interferon on natural killer (NK) cells assessed by fluorescent probes and flow cytometry. McGinnes, K., Chapman, G., Penny, R. J. Immunol. Methods (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. The high affinity calcium-binding sites in the epidermal growth factor module region of vitamin K-dependent protein S. Stenberg, Y., Linse, S., Drakenberg, T., Stenflo, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Novel type of very high affinity calcium-binding sites in beta-hydroxyasparagine-containing epidermal growth factor-like domains in vitamin K-dependent protein S. Dahlbäck, B., Hildebrand, B., Linse, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  31. Cyclosporine augments receptor-mediated cellular Ca2+ fluxes in isolated hepatocytes. Nicchitta, C.V., Kamoun, M., Williamson, J.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Single cell analysis of calcium mobilization in anti-immunoglobulin-stimulated B lymphocytes. Ransom, J.T., DiGiusto, D.L., Cambier, J.C. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  33. Interleukin 2 increases T lymphocyte membrane mobility before the rise in cytosolic calcium concentration. Utsunomiya, N., Tsuboi, M., Nakanishi, M. Biochemistry (1986) [Pubmed]
  34. Which parameters affect cytosolic free calcium in polymorphonuclear leukocytes of haemodialysis patients? Kárpáti, I., Seres, I., Mátyus, J., Ben, T., Paragh, G., Varga, Z., Kakuk, G. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. (2001) [Pubmed]
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