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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Anemia


High impact information on Anemia

  • The hematopoietic abnormalities in the trisomy 16 mouse, involving the lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid cell lineages, are much more generalized than the abnormalities in any of the other described genetically caused immunodeficiencies or anemias in the mouse [6].
  • We have examined whether the secretion of erythropoietin (Epo) from genetically modified cells could represent an alternative to repeated injections of the recombinant hormone for treating chronic anemias responsive to Epo [7].
  • These results indicate that vascular smooth muscle cells can be genetically modified to provide treatment of anemias due to Epo deficiency and suggest that this cell type may be targeted in the treatment of other diseases requiring systemic therapeutic protein delivery [8].
  • We conclude that the serum erythropoietin levels in SCA increased at a lower hemoglobin concentration and are of a lower magnitude than that of the other anemias [9].
  • PURPOSE: Severe anemias requiring RBC transfusions is a frequent complication of chemotherapy [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Anemia

  • Although normal bone marrow cells expressed low levels of fetal antigens, large amounts were seen on bone marrow cells of patients with anemias due to iron, B12, or folic acid deficiencies, as well as on those with leukemia [11].
  • Only two had anemias attributable to malabsorption; one was iron deficient, the other folate deficient [12].
  • The methods thus proved suitable for detecting clinically significant deviations in oxygen affinity such as occur in patients with, e.g., abnormal hemoglobins, anemias, or carbon monoxide poisoning [13].
  • The results demonstrate that electrophoretically and in terms of fluoride inhibition, nonspecific esterases obtained primarily from erythroid precursors in various types of anemias are similar to nonspecific esterases found in normal marrows presumably containing a more heterogeneous population of cells [14].
  • Measurement of retHb and the rbcHb/retHb ratio may provide an estimate of the reduction in red blood cell survival and the severity of hemolysis in various anemias and allow more precise monitoring of the response to hydroxyurea, iron, r-HuEPO, or other therapies [15].

Biological context of Anemia


Anatomical context of Anemia

  • A lesion as large as the one presented herein has rarely been reported with iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid deficiency anemias secondary to the contaminated small bowel (ileum) syndrome [19].

Gene context of Anemia

  • We conclude that CD34 immunostaining in BMB is a useful tool for distinguishing RA from other anemias, assessing blast percentage in MDS cases, classifying them according to FAB, and following their evolution [20].
  • Availability of recombinant cytokines has also allowed clinical testing in settings of disease- or therapy-related neutropenias and anemias, and particularly GM-CSF, G-CSF, and EPO have proven efficient in this respect [21].
  • Serum transferrin receptor concentration in patients with anemias and polycythemias was determined [22].
  • Considered in the differential diagnosis are reactive extramedullary hematopoietic tumors that usually occur in patients with severe chronic anemias [23].
  • In the course of a phase I-II clinical study exploring the therapeutic potential of recombinant human erythropoietin in malignancy-associated anemias, a significant morphologic aspect was found in the marrow aspirates in two cases [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Anemia


  1. Lethal thalassemia after insertional disruption of the mouse major adult beta-globin gene. Shehee, W.R., Oliver, P., Smithies, O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. The amount of ferritin and hemosiderin in the livers of patients with iron-loading diseases. Zuyderhoudt, F.M., Sindram, J.W., Marx, J.J., Jörning, G.G., van Gool, J. Hepatology (1983) [Pubmed]
  3. Polymer conjugation reduces deferoxamine induced retinopathy in an albino rat model. Gehlbach, P.L., Purple, R.L., Hallaway, P.E., Hedlund, B.E. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Stem cell factor can overcome inhibition of highly purified human burst-forming units-erythroid by interferon gamma. Dai, C.H., Krantz, S.B., Kollar, K., Price, J.O. J. Cell. Physiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Erythropoietin receptor-operated Ca2+ channels: activation by phospholipase C-gamma 1. Marrero, M.B., Venema, R.C., Ma, H., Ling, B.N., Eaton, D.C. Kidney Int. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Stem cell deficiencies and thymic abnormalities in fetal mouse trisomy 16. Epstein, C.J., Hofmeister, B.G., Yee, D., Smith, S.A., Philip, R., Cox, D.R., Epstein, L.B. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Sustained delivery of erythropoietin in mice by genetically modified skin fibroblasts. Naffakh, N., Henri, A., Villeval, J.L., Rouyer-Fessard, P., Moullier, P., Blumenfeld, N., Danos, O., Vainchenker, W., Heard, J.M., Beuzard, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Gene therapy for long-term expression of erythropoietin in rats. Osborne, W.R., Ramesh, N., Lau, S., Clowes, M.M., Dale, D.C., Clowes, A.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Sickle cell anemia patients have low erythropoietin levels for their degree of anemia. Sherwood, J.B., Goldwasser, E., Chilcote, R., Carmichael, L.D., Nagel, R.L. Blood (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Risk model predictive of severe anemia requiring RBC transfusion after chemotherapy in pediatric solid tumor patients. Marec-Berard, P., Blay, J.Y., Schell, M., Buclon, M., Demaret, C., Ray-Coquard, I. J. Clin. Oncol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Fetal antigens in nonneoplastic conditions. Jerry, L.M., Lewis, M.G., Rowden, G., Sullivan, A.K., Pitzele, R., Law, T. Cancer Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Nutritional status in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis. Gawkrodger, D.J., Ferguson, A., Barnetson, R.S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. Reliability of the determination of whole-blood oxygen affinity by means of blood-gas analyzers and multi-wavelength oximeters. Kwant, G., Oeseburg, B., Zijistra, W.G. Clin. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. Nonspecific esterase activity in pernicious anemia and chronic erythremic myelosis: a cytochemical and electrophoretic study. Kass, L., Peters, C.L. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Reticulocyte hemoglobin: an integrated parameter for evaluation of erythropoietic activity. Brugnara, C., Zelmanovic, D., Sorette, M., Ballas, S.K., Platt, O. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. c-kit protein (stem cell factor receptor) expression on cells with erythroid characteristics and on normal human bone marrow without the use of monoclonal antibodies. McGuckin, C.P., Uhr, M.R., Gordon-Smith, E.C. Exp. Hematol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Detection of G6PD and pyruvate kinase deficiencies in reticulocytosis by reference to erythrocyte creatine. Brewster, M.A., Berry, D.H. Clin. Biochem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. AMIL survey (anemia in Internal Medicine in Liguria). Bonanni, F., Brignone, M., Garrone, A., Gobbi, M., Menardo, G., Parodi, L., Venzano, C. Ann. Ital. Med. Int. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Malabsorption secondary to Meckel's diverticulum. Savino, J.A. Am. J. Surg. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. CD34/QBEND10 immunostaining in bone marrow biopsies: an additional parameter for the diagnosis and classification of myelodysplastic syndromes. Baur, A.S., Meugé-Moraw, C., Schmidt, P.M., Parlier, V., Jotterand, M., Delacrétaz, F. Eur. J. Haematol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Cytokines in the pathogenesis and management of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Cicco, N.A., Lübbert, M., Oster, W., Lindemann, A., Mertelsmann, R. Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Quantitation and characterization of serum transferrin receptor in patients with anemias and polycythemias. Kohgo, Y., Niitsu, Y., Nishisato, T., Kato, J., Kondo, H., Sasaki, K., Urushizaki, I. Jpn. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Extra-adrenal myelolipomas compared with extramedullary hematopoietic tumors: a case of presacral myelolipoma. Fowler, M.R., Williams, R.B., Alba, J.M., Byrd, C.R. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Selective metaphasic blockade of erythroblasts in the bone marrow of patients treated sequentially with recombinant human erythropoietin and vincristine. Marmont, A.M. Haematologica (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Overview: erythropoiesis, anemia, and the impact of erythropoietin. Gabrilove, J. Semin. Hematol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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