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Gene Review

ACR  -  acrosin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: ACRS, Acrosin
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Disease relevance of ACR


Psychiatry related information on ACR

  • At 48 and 52 weeks, ACR remission criteria were met in 35% of the combination therapy group and 28% of the monotherapy group [6].
  • Dementia. American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria [7].
  • SUBJECTS: had primary chronic knee OA (ACR criteria) with pain during physical activity >or=30 mm for at least 48 hours [8].
  • Demographic, clinical, socioeconomic, and psychosocial factors and disease outcomes [Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM), Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR), SF-36] were measured [9].
  • SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/ACR Damage Index (SDI), severity, self-concept and socioeconomic status (SES) were measured [10].

High impact information on ACR

  • The primary measure of clinical response was the American College of Rheumatology criteria for a 20 percent improvement in measures of disease activity (ACR 20) at 24 weeks [11].
  • The acrosin gene maps within the microdeletion, approximately 70 kb from the telomere [12].
  • The effect of digoxin on computer-quantitated thallium-201 perfusion scintigrams (Tl-201), left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), and percentage of abnormally contracting LV regions (% ACR) was determined in 23 patients [13].
  • A correlation was established between creatine kinase MB isoenzyme release and initial radionuclide-gated blood pool wall motion estimates of EF (r = -0.73) and % ACR (r = 0.71) [13].
  • Patients with abnormal cytogenetics at diagnosis, and normal cytogenetics at CR (NCR; n = 103) were compared with those with abnormal cytogenetics both at diagnosis and at CR (ACR; n = 15) for overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of ACR


Biological context of ACR

  • The gene encoding the human preproacrosin (ACR) maps to the q13-qter region on chromosome 22 [19].
  • The ACR (American College of Rheumatology - formerly ARA, American Rheumatism Association) remission criteria are strict and include nonspecific symptoms such as fatigue [20].
  • Analysis of variance revealed significant associations of RBP4 (p < 0.05), ACR (p < 0.01), and OPNin6 (p < 0.05) with sperm motility [21].
  • Structurally relevant sulphated polymers and suramin, a polysulphonated anticancer drug, compete with mZP2 for complementary binding sites on proacrosin/acrosin in solid-phase binding assays [22].
  • Using the indirect immunofluorescent staining technique, the developmental patterns of (pro) acrosin and the outer acrosomal membrane were studied in human spermatogenesis [23].

Anatomical context of ACR


Associations of ACR with chemical compounds

  • CONCLUSION: A single course of rituximab with continuing methotrexate in patients with active RA provided clinically meaningful improvements in physical function over 2 yrs, with lower discontinuation rates and larger SES for improvements in ACR and EULAR criteria components [26].
  • Heparin was found to be an allosteric modulator of the amidolytic activity of the protease acrosin [27].
  • The sequence identity is 70%; the leader sequence, the catalytic triad (His, Asp, Ser; which is characteristic for serine proteinases) and the positions of the cysteine residues crosslinking the light and the heavy chain of the active enzyme, acrosin, are conserved in both species [28].
  • Response rates according to the ACR pediatric 30 criteria improved from month 3 to month 12, as follows: from 63% to 77% in the meloxicam 0.125 mg/kg group, from 58% to 76% in the meloxicam 0.25 mg/kg group, and from 64% to 74% in the naproxen group [29].
  • In a nationally representative sample of subjects, the distribution of urine albumin and creatinine concentrations was examined by using one ACR value (> or =30 microg/mg) and sex-specific cutpoints (> or =17 microg/mg in men and > or =25 microg/mg in women) measured in spot urine specimens [30].

Physical interactions of ACR


Regulatory relationships of ACR

  • Purified human PCI inhibited the amidolytic activity of purified boar acrosin with an apparent second-order rate constant of 3.7 x 10(4) M-1.s-1 [24].
  • Both P388/ACR and P388/ADM cells expressed large amounts of P-glycoprotein, and the amount was 3-fold higher in the P388/ACR than in the P388/ADM cells [31].
  • While antithrombin was fully active against acrosin, more than one molecule of Arg-alpha 1-antitrypsin and protease nexin 1 was required to inhibit one molecule of acrosin [32].

Other interactions of ACR

  • CONCLUSION(S): The rec-hZPA is the major ZP ligand for human proacrosin/acrosin [25].
  • METHODS: Thirty-six patients with RA meeting the ACR-criteria were recruited for the study in a multicentre trial [33].
  • At the C-terminal end, a proline-rich sequence is present in both species; this may represent the species-specificity of acrosin [28].
  • METHODS: Clinical responses of 70 patients treated with etanercept were determined according to the ACR criteria [34].
  • Direct study of cytokine mRNA in allograft biopsy tissue showed that IL-2 was specifically and significantly (p = 0.006) elevated during ACR when compared to other causes of graft dysfunction [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of ACR


  1. Biochemical and molecular studies of the proacrosin/acrosin system in patients with unexplained infertility. Marí, S.I., Rawe, V., Biancotti, J.C., Charreau, E.H., Dain, L., Vazquez-Levin, M.H. Fertil. Steril. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. The relationship of socioeconomic status, race, and modifiable risk factors to outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Karlson, E.W., Daltroy, L.H., Lew, R.A., Wright, E.A., Partridge, A.J., Fossel, A.H., Roberts, W.N., Stern, S.H., Straaton, K.V., Wacholtz, M.C., Kavanaugh, A.F., Grosflam, J.M., Liang, M.H. Arthritis Rheum. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Winners of the 1993 ACR slide competition and future plans for the clinical slide collection on the rheumatic diseases. The ACR Audiovisual AIDS Subcommittee. Maricic, M.J. Arthritis Rheum. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Nephrotic-range proteinuria, the major risk factor for early atherosclerosis in juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Falaschi, F., Ravelli, A., Martignoni, A., Migliavacca, D., Sartori, M., Pistorio, A., Perani, G., Martini, A. Arthritis Rheum. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. The reliability of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Gladman, D.D., Urowitz, M.B., Goldsmith, C.H., Fortin, P., Ginzler, E., Gordon, C., Hanly, J.G., Isenberg, D.A., Kalunian, K., Nived, O., Petri, M., Sanchez-Guerrero, J., Snaith, M., Sturfelt, G. Arthritis Rheum. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Combination treatment with methotrexate, cyclosporine, and intraarticular betamethasone compared with methotrexate and intraarticular betamethasone in early active rheumatoid arthritis: an investigator-initiated, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study. Hetland, M.L., Stengaard-Pedersen, K., Junker, P., Lottenburger, T., Ellingsen, T., Andersen, L.S., Hansen, I., Skjødt, H., Pedersen, J.K., Lauridsen, U.B., Svendsen, A., Tarp, U., Pødenphant, J., Hansen, G., Lindegaard, H., de Carvalho, A., Østergaard, M., Hørslev-Petersen, K. Arthritis Rheum. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Dementia. American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria. Braffman, B., Drayer, B.P., Anderson, R.E., Davis, P.C., Deck, M.D., Hasso, A.N., Johnson, B.A., Masaryk, T., Pomeranz, S.J., Seidenwurm, D., Tanenbaum, L., Masdeu, J.C. Radiology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. EULAR report on the use of ultrasonography in painful knee osteoarthritis. Part 1: prevalence of inflammation in osteoarthritis. D'Agostino, M.A., Conaghan, P., Le Bars, M., Baron, G., Grassi, W., Martin-Mola, E., Wakefield, R., Brasseur, J.L., So, A., Backhaus, M., Malaise, M., Burmester, G., Schmidely, N., Ravaud, P., Dougados, M., Emery, P. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Variable effects of social support by race, economic status, and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus. Bae, S.C., Hashimoto, H., Karlson, E.W., Liang, M.H., Daltroy, L.H. J. Rheumatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Relationship of quality of life and physical function measures with disease activity in children with systemic lupus erythematosus. Moorthy, L.N., Harrison, M.J., Peterson, M., Onel, K.B., Lehman, T.J. Lupus (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. A trial of etanercept, a recombinant tumor necrosis factor receptor:Fc fusion protein, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving methotrexate. Weinblatt, M.E., Kremer, J.M., Bankhurst, A.D., Bulpitt, K.J., Fleischmann, R.M., Fox, R.I., Jackson, C.G., Lange, M., Burge, D.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular characterization of a 130-kb terminal microdeletion at 22q in a child with mild mental retardation. Wong, A.C., Ning, Y., Flint, J., Clark, K., Dumanski, J.P., Ledbetter, D.H., McDermid, H.E. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Digitalis and myocardial infarction in man. Morrison, J., Coromilas, J., Robbins, M., Ong, L., Eisenberg, S., Stechel, R., Zema, M., Reiser, P., Scherr, L. Circulation (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Abnormal cytogenetics at date of morphologic complete remission predicts short overall and disease-free survival, and higher relapse rate in adult acute myeloid leukemia: results from cancer and leukemia group B study 8461. Marcucci, G., Mrózek, K., Ruppert, A.S., Archer, K.J., Pettenati, M.J., Heerema, N.A., Carroll, A.J., Koduru, P.R., Kolitz, J.E., Sterling, L.J., Edwards, C.G., Anastasi, J., Larson, R.A., Bloomfield, C.D. J. Clin. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Human colon cancer tissues are more sensitive than rectal cancer tissues to antitumor drugs in vitro. Ueo, H., Maehara, Y., Saito, A., Sakaguchi, Y., Kohnoe, S., Sugimachi, K. Oncology (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. Colorectal carcinoma in vitro is more sensitive to 1-hexylcarbamoyl-5-fluorouracil compared with six other antitumor drugs: carboquone, Adriamycin, mitomycin C, aclacinomycin A, cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil. Maehara, Y., Anai, H., Kusumoto, H., Kusumoto, T., Sugimachi, K. Dis. Colon Rectum (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Evaluation of tight junction protein 1 encoding zona occludens 1 as a candidate gene for albuminuria in a mexican american population. Lehman, D.M., Leach, R.J., Johnson-Pais, T., Hamlington, J., Fowler, S., Almasy, L., Duggirala, R., Stern, M.P., Abboud, H.E. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Treatment of four patients with myelodysplastic syndrome with a small dose of aclacinomycin-A. Shibuya, T., Morioka, E., Taniguchi, S., Ohhara, N., Okamura, S., Niho, Y. Leuk. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. The gene encoding the human preproacrosin (ACR) maps to the q13-qter region on chromosome 22. Adham, I.M., Grzeschik, K.H., Geurts van Kessel, A.H., Engel, W. Hum. Genet. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Definitions of remission for rheumatoid arthritis and review of selected clinical cohorts and randomised clinical trials for the rate of remission. M??kinen, H., Hannonen, P., Sokka, T. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Evidence for effects of testis and epididymis expressed genes on sperm quality and boar fertility traits. Lin, C., Tholen, E., Jennen, D., Ponsuksili, S., Schellander, K., Wimmers, K. Reprod. Domest. Anim. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Interactions between mouse ZP2 glycoprotein and proacrosin; a mechanism for secondary binding of sperm to the zona pellucida during fertilization. Howes, E., Pascall, J.C., Engel, W., Jones, R. J. Cell. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Acrosin and the acrosome in human spermatogenesis. Flörke-Gerloff, S., Töpfer-Petersen, E., Müller-Esterl, W., Schill, W.B., Engel, W. Hum. Genet. (1983) [Pubmed]
  24. Inhibition of acrosin by protein C inhibitor and localization of protein C inhibitor to spermatozoa. Zheng, X., Geiger, M., Ecke, S., Bielek, E., Donner, P., Eberspächer, U., Schleuning, W.D., Binder, B.R. Am. J. Physiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Binding of recombinant human proacrosin/acrosin to zona pellucida (ZP) glycoproteins. I. Studies with recombinant human ZPA, ZPB, and ZPC. Furlong, L.I., Harris, J.D., Vazquez-Levin, M.H. Fertil. Steril. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Sustained benefit in rheumatoid arthritis following one course of rituximab: improvements in physical function over 2 years. Strand, V., Balbir-Gurman, A., Pavelka, K., Emery, P., Li, N., Yin, M., Lehane, P.B., Agarwal, S. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Rapid inhibition of the sperm protease acrosin by protein C inhibitor. Hermans, J.M., Jones, R., Stone, S.R. Biochemistry (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Molecular cloning of human preproacrosin cDNA. Adham, I.M., Klemm, U., Maier, W.M., Engel, W. Hum. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  29. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial of two doses of meloxicam compared with naproxen in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: short- and long-term efficacy and safety results. Ruperto, N., Nikishina, I., Pachanov, E.D., Shachbazian, Y., Prieur, A.M., Mouy, R., Joos, R., Zulian, F., Schwarz, R., Artamonova, V., Emminger, W., Bandeira, M., Buoncompagni, A., Foeldvari, I., Falcini, F., Baildam, E., Kone-Paut, I., Alessio, M., Gerloni, V., Lenhardt, A., Martini, A., Hanft, G., Sigmund, R., Simianer, S. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Use of the albumin/creatinine ratio to detect microalbuminuria: implications of sex and race. Mattix, H.J., Hsu, C.Y., Shaykevich, S., Curhan, G. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Difference between the resistance mechanisms of aclacinomycin- and adriamycin-resistant P388 cell lines. Dong, J., Naito, M., Tatsuta, T., Seimiya, H., Johdo, O., Tsuruo, T. Oncol. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Inhibition of acrosin by serpins. A suicide substrate mechanism. Hermans, J.M., Monard, D., Jones, R., Stone, S.R. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Inhibitory effects of leflunomide therapy on the activity of matrixmetalloproteinase-9 and the release of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Kullich, W.C., Mur, E., Aglas, F., Niksic, F., Czerwenka, C. Clin. Exp. Rheumatol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  34. The influence of a polymorphism at position -857 of the tumour necrosis factor alpha gene on clinical response to etanercept therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. Kang, C.P., Lee, K.W., Yoo, D.H., Kang, C., Bae, S.C. Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Rapid, comprehensive analysis of human cytokine mRNA and its application to the study of acute renal allograft rejection. Kirk, A.D., Bollinger, R.R., Finn, O.J. Hum. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Interactions between zona pellucida glycoproteins and sperm proacrosin/acrosin during fertilization. Howes, L., Jones, R. J. Reprod. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Early steps of sperm-egg interactions during mammalian fertilization. Barros, C., Crosby, J.A., Moreno, R.D. Cell Biol. Int. (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. ACR program accredits nearly 800 mammography units. Kumar, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1989) [Pubmed]
  39. The assessment of rheumatoid arthritis and the acceptability of self-report questionnaires in clinical practice. Wolfe, F., Pincus, T., Thompson, A.K., Doyle, J. Arthritis Rheum. (2003) [Pubmed]
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