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Gene Review

Klk1c2  -  kallikrein 1-related peptidase C2

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Esterase 1, Glandular kallikrein-2, KLK2, Klk-2, Klk2, ...
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Disease relevance of Ton

  • Tonin in rat heart with experimental hypertrophy [1].
  • Our results permit us to conclude that tonin may play a role in the process of heart hypertrophy in the rat [1].
  • Total urinary TAME esterase activity (kallikrein and non-kallikrein) showed a marked increase with dialysis against water, but only in hypertensive S rats with proteinuria [2].
  • Kallikrein TAME esterase activity was the same in 1 1/2-month-old S and R rats but became reduced in S relative to R rats at 3 and 6 months of age, concomitant with the development of hypertension and marked proteinuria [3].
  • During a 22-h autolysis of pancreatic extract, a time-dependent increase in active kallikrein concentration paralleled the increase of kallikrein activities measured by both TosArgOMe esterase and kininogenase assays [4].

Psychiatry related information on Ton


High impact information on Ton


Chemical compound and disease context of Ton


Biological context of Ton


Anatomical context of Ton


Associations of Ton with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Ton

  • However, the solid-phase antibody-bound tonin-alpha 1-macroglobulin complex could not hydrolyze the plasma protein renin substrate [11].
  • The apparent binding affinity was markedly increased when the binding assay was carried out in the presence of the esterase inhibitor DFP or at 0 degrees C. Free arachidonic acid and N-palmitoylethanolamine were almost inactive in terms of binding to the cannabinoid receptor in synaptosomal membranes [22].

Regulatory relationships of Ton


Other interactions of Ton

  • We have defined the tissue-specific expression of the PS (true kallikrein), S2 (tonin), and S3 mRNAs with gene-specific oligonucleotide probes derived from these variant regions [28].
  • Nevertheless, the structure of tonin that is described is for the most part similar to its native form as indicated by the close tertiary structural homology with kallikrein [13].
  • Investigation of the substrate specificity of rat tissue kallikreins has shown the importance of an extended site of interaction, and that the proform of rat natriuretic peptides, pro-ANP, could be a substrate for two members of the family, rK2 (tonin) and rK9 (Moreau et al. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 10045-10051) [29].
  • In the submandibular gland, esterase B was detected exclusively in all granular convoluted tubular cells, co-localized with tissue kallikrein and tonin [30].
  • They were found to be the protein products of the rKlk2 (tonin) and the rKlk9 genes by amino acid sequence analysis (nomenclature of the genes and proteins of the kallikrein family is according to the proposal of the discussion panel from the participants of the KININ '91 meeting held Sept. 8-14, 1991, in Munich, Germany) [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ton


  1. Tonin in rat heart with experimental hypertrophy. Borges, J.C., Silva, J.A., Gomes, M.A., Lomez, E.S., Leite, K.M., Araujo, R.C., Bader, M., Pesquero, J.B., Pesquero, J.L. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Total and kallikrein arginine esterase activities in the urine of salt-hypertensive susceptible and resistant rats. Sustarsic, D.L., McPartland, R.P., Rapp, J.P. Hypertension (1980) [Pubmed]
  3. Developmental patterns of blood pressure and urinary protein, kallikrein, and prostaglandin E2 in Dahl salt-hypertension-susceptible rats. Sustarsic, D.L., McPartland, R.P., Rapp, J.P. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Immunological analysis of rat pancreatic prokallikrein activation. Woodley, C.M., Chao, J., Chao, L. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Effect of oral administration of zanapezil (TAK-147) for 21 days on acetylcholine and monoamines levels in the ventral hippocampus of freely moving rats. Hatip-Al-Khatib, I., Iwasaki, K., Yoshimitsu, Y., Arai, T., Egashira, N., Mishima, K., Ikeda, T., Fujiwara, M. Br. J. Pharmacol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of food deprivation and drug administration on intestinal esterase activity. Morikawa, M., Inoue, M., Tsuboi, M. Jpn. J. Pharmacol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  7. Amino acid sequence of rat submaxillary tonin reveals similarities to serine proteases. Lazure, C., Leduc, R., Seidah, N.G., Thibault, G., Genest, J., Chrétien, M. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Sequence homologies between tonin, nerve growth factor gamma-subunit, epidermal growth factor-binding protein and serine proteases. Lazure, C., Seidah, N.G., Thibault, G., Boucher, R., Genest, J., Chrétien, M. Nature (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. A microsomal butyrylesterase appearing in rat livers during development, regeneration, and carcinogenesis, and after phenobarbital treatment. Kaneko, A., Chisaka, N., Enomoto, K., Kaku, T., Dempo, K., Mori, M., Onoe, T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. Histochemical and cytochemical study of butyrylcholinesterase activity in rat hepatocellular carcinomas induced by 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene. Yokoyama, S., Kaneko, A., Dempo, K., Chisaka, N., Mori, M., Onoe, T. Cancer Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Formation of angiotensin II by tonin-inhibitor complex. Ikeda, M., Sasaguri, M., Maruta, H., Arakawa, K. Hypertension (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Studies of hepatic warm ischemia in the obese Zucker rat. Koneru, B., Reddy, M.C., dela Torre, A.N., Patel, D., Ippolito, T., Ferrante, R.J. Transplantation (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Rat submaxillary gland serine protease, tonin. Structure solution and refinement at 1.8 A resolution. Fujinaga, M., James, M.N. J. Mol. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Kallikrein-related mRNAs of the rat submaxillary gland: nucleotide sequences of four distinct types including tonin. Ashley, P.L., MacDonald, R.J. Biochemistry (1985) [Pubmed]
  15. Characterization of genes encoding rat tonin and a kallikrein-like serine protease. Shai, S.Y., Woodley-Miller, C., Chao, J., Chao, L. Biochemistry (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Tissue kallikrein and tonin levels in submandibular glands of STZ-induced diabetic rats and the effects of insulin. Chan, K.M., Chao, J., Proctor, G.B., Garrett, J.R., Shori, D.K., Anderson, L.C. Diabetes (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Distribution of tonin- and kallikrein-like activities in rat brain. Lopes, E.S., Sumitani, M., Juliano, L., Beraldo, W.T., Pesquero, J.L. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Identification and expression of kallikrein gene family in rat submandibular and prostate glands using monoclonal antibodies as specific probes. Chao, J., Chao, L. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Purification and characterization of a kallikrein-like T-kininogenase. Xiong, W., Chen, L.M., Chao, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Taxon-specific evolution of glandular kallikrein genes and identification of a progenitor of prostate-specific antigen. Olsson, A.Y., Lilja, H., Lundwall, A. Genomics (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. New specific assays for tonin and tissue kallikrein activities in rat submandibular glands. Assays reveal differences in the effects of sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation on proteinases in saliva. Shori, D.K., Proctor, G.B., Chao, J., Chan, K.M., Garrett, J.R. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol: a possible endogenous cannabinoid receptor ligand in brain. Sugiura, T., Kondo, S., Sukagawa, A., Nakane, S., Shinoda, A., Itoh, K., Yamashita, A., Waku, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Observation of tissue prokallikrein activation by some serine proteases, arginine esterases in rat submandibular gland. Kamada, M., Furuhata, N., Yamaguchi, T., Ikekita, M., Kizuki, K., Moriya, H. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  24. A method for the estimation of esterase synthesis and degradation and its application to evaluate the influence of insulin and glucagon. Heymann, E., Mentlein, R., Schmalz, R., Schwabe, C., Wagenmann, F. Eur. J. Biochem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Sustained inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity does not disrupt early geniculocortical ingrowth to developing rat visual cortex. Ling, J.J., Yu, J., Robertson, R.T. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and phorbol esters on neutral cholesteryl esterase activity in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Fujiwara, R., Shimada, A., Tamai, T., Nakai, T., Miyabo, S. J. Lab. Clin. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Specificity of the sex-influenced esterase (ES-SI) isozyme in rat liver. Nikaido, H., Hirose, T., Nikaido, O., Yamada, J., Hayakawa, J. Biochem. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Organization and expression of the rat kallikrein gene family. Wines, D.R., Brady, J.M., Pritchett, D.B., Roberts, J.L., MacDonald, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Pro-rat atrial natriuretic peptide-mimicking peptides as substrates for rat kallikreins rK2 (tonin) and rK9. Moreau, T., Brillard-Bourdet, M., Chagas, J., Gauthier, F. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Immunohistochemical localization of rat submandibular gland esterase B (homologous to the RSKG-7 kallikrein gene) in relation to other serine proteases of the kallikrein family. Berg, T., Wassdal, I., Sletten, K. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. Protein products of the rat kallikrein gene family. Substrate specificities of kallikrein rK2 (tonin) and kallikrein rK9. Moreau, T., Brillard-Bourdet, M., Bouhnik, J., Gauthier, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Comparison of the distribution of tissue kallikrein and esterase A, a kallikrein-like enzyme, in rat kidney using specific monoclonal antibodies. Simson, J.A., Condon, J.L., Chao, L., Chao, J. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  33. A monoclonal antibody to rat tissue kallikrein: use in biochemical and immunohistochemical studies. Woodley, C.M., Chao, J., Simson, J.A., Margolius, H.S., Chao, L. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
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