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Chemical Compound Review

Brocide     1,2-dichloroethane

Synonyms: DICHLOROETHANE, HSDB 65, Borer sol, CCRIS 225, Dutch oil, ...
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Disease relevance of Dichloremulsion


High impact information on Dichloremulsion

  • Ethylene dibromide (EDB), a known stomach carcinogen, and ethylene dichloride (EDC), which is carcinogenic to the liver, have been shown in in vitro experiments to bind covalently to stomach and hepatic microsomal proteins and to salmon sperm DNA [6].
  • These findings suggest that metabolic activation of EDB and EDC is required for their covalent binding to macromolecules [6].
  • This haloalkane dehalogenase lowers the activation barrier for dehalogenation of DCE by 2-4 kcal/mol relative to the single point energies of the enzyme's quantum mechanics atoms in the gas phase [7].
  • The calculated quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics activation barriers for the enzymatic reaction are 16.2 and 19.4 kcal/mol when the geometry of the reactants is in a near attack conformer from molecular dynamics and in a conformer similar to the crystal structure (DCE is gauche), respectively [7].
  • In the presence of dichloroethane at pH 5-5.5, the equilibrium is shifted to a mixture of the ligand-bound and ligand-excluding cavity structures, with half-occupancy of the sulfate sites, exemplifying how a volatile anesthetic can act as an allosteric effector [8].

Biological context of Dichloremulsion


Anatomical context of Dichloremulsion

  • BACKGROUND: Human epidemiologic studies and previous teratogenic studies using chick embryos and fetal rats have shown an increased incidence of congenital cardiac lesions in animals exposed to TCE and DCE [9].
  • This mammalian study demonstrates similar effects of trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene when applied under provocative circumstances (that is, solutions delivered through a catheter into the gravid uterus from an intraperitoneal osmotic pump) to the developing rat fetus in utero during the period of organ differentiation and development [14].
  • These used pulled borosilicate capillaries with tip orifice radii of 0.7-20 microm with silanized inner walls filled with a solution of 10 mM valinomycin and 10 mM ETH 500 in dichloroethane [15].
  • OBJECTIVES: This study documented the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) in the breast milk of women from Quebec, Canada, and assessed the impact of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on these levels [16].
  • For the neutral, insoluble and almost totally albumin-bound compounds, DDE and 6-CB, albumin may act as an additional binding competitor that inhibits adipose tissue uptake [17].

Associations of Dichloremulsion with other chemical compounds

  • Although only a very small number of congenital heart anomalies (3%) were found in the control group, 9% and 12.5% were found in the lower dose trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene groups and 14% and 21% in the higher dose groups, respectively (p less than 0.05) [14].
  • This analysis also suggests that the effective redox potential of BQ at the liquid|liquid boundary is shifted by 0.6 V toward positive potentials with respect to the value in bulk DCE [18].
  • In contrast to these results, the reduced absorption and emission spectra of the mesitylene (MES)/TCNB CT complex in DCLE are distinctly different and do not display a mirror image relationship [19].
  • We report a continuous-flow fluorometric method for total urinary estrogens that involves the Kober reaction, with extraction of the reaction product into dichloroethane containing trichloroacetic acid as described by Hahnel and Jones [Clin. Chim. Acta 16, 185 (1967)] [20].
  • The reactivity of X(*)(D(1)) toward a series of halogen donors and electron acceptors in acetonitrile and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) was investigated [21].

Gene context of Dichloremulsion

  • Mouse blood was collected in tubes containing EDTA, centrifuged at 1500 g for 20 min at 4 degrees C, and stored at -20 degrees C. Plasma samples were extracted with dichloroethane, centrifuged and the aqueous phase was discarded [22].
  • Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) exposure among Native American men from contaminated Great Lakes fish and wildlife [23].
  • The mean PCB serum congener sum level for 192 anglers was 2.2 micrograms/l (range = nondetectable to 27.1 micrograms/l); mean DDE was 6.3 micrograms/l (range = nondetectable to 40.0 micrograms/l) [24].
  • Statistically significant positive Spearman correlations were observed between sport-caught fish meals and PCB and DDE sera levels (R = .21 and .14, respectively) and between kilograms of fish caught and PCB sera levels (R = .25) [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dichloremulsion

  • Prior to radioimmunoassay, a fraction enriched in DES is obtained from a dichloroethane extract of plasma using Sephadex LH-20 [25].
  • [reaction: see text] Two easy-to-synthesize polypyrrolic 2,5-diamidothiophene Schiff base macrocycles are reported, along with their anion binding properties as determined via UV-vis spectroscopic titrations carried out in dichloroethane [26].
  • The bioreactor fed with DCE was functionally stable and the percentage of GJ10 cells in the community remained high (around 95% of total cells) throughout, even after introduction of foreign microorganisms [27].
  • It was determined in plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of a dichloroethane extract [28].
  • Serum levels (ng/g) of DDE, HCB, and 69 PCB congeners were determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detection [5].


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  8. Stereospecific dihaloalkane binding in a pH-sensitive cavity in cubic insulin crystals. Gursky, O., Fontano, E., Bhyravbhatla, B., Caspar, D.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
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  11. Products identified at an alternative disinfection pilot plant. Lykins, B.W., Koffskey, W. Environ. Health Perspect. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Characterization of the genotoxic action of three structurally related 1,2-dihaloalkanes in Drosophila melanogaster. Ballering, L.A., Nivard, M.J., Vogel, E.W. Mutat. Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  13. Atopic manifestations, breast-feeding protection and the adverse effect of DDE. Karmaus, W., Davis, S., Chen, Q., Kuehr, J., Kruse, H. Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Cardiac teratogenesis of trichloroethylene and dichloroethylene in a mammalian model. Dawson, B.V., Johnson, P.D., Goldberg, S.J., Ulreich, J.B. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Scanning electrochemical microscopy. 40. Voltammetric ion-selective micropipet electrodes for probing ion transfer at bilayer lipid membranes. Amemiya, S., Bard, A.J. Anal. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations in the breast milk of women in Quebec. Dewailly, E., Ayotte, P., Laliberté, C., Weber, J.P., Gingras, S., Nantel, A.J. American journal of public health. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Uptake of lipophilic model compounds into the isolated perfused rat epididymal adipose tissue. Gubser, R., Di Francesco, C., Bickel, M.H. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Photoinduced electron transfer at liquid|liquid interfaces: dynamics of the heterogeneous photoreduction of quinones by self-assembled porphyrin ion pairs. Eugster, N., Fermín, D.J., Girault, H.H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. The nature of the rapid relaxation of excited charge-transfer complexes. Levy, D., Arnold, B.R. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. A semi-automated fluorometric method for total estrogens in pregnancy urine. Frye, R., Fong, P.F., Johnson, G.F., Rock, R.C. Clin. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Properties and reactivity of xanthyl radical in the excited state. Sakamoto, M., Cai, X., Fujitsuka, M., Majima, T. The journal of physical chemistry. A, Molecules, spectroscopy, kinetics, environment & general theory. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Determination of melatonin in biological samples by capillary electrophoresis. Kim, Y.O., Chung, H.J., Chung, S.T., Kim, J.H., Park, J.H., Han, S.Y., Kil, K.S., Cho, D.H. Journal of chromatography. A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) exposure among Native American men from contaminated Great Lakes fish and wildlife. Fitzgerald, E.F., Brix, K.A., Deres, D.A., Hwang, S.A., Bush, B., Lambert, G., Tarbell, A. Toxicology and industrial health. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Sport fish consumption and body burden levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons: a study of Wisconsin anglers. Fiore, B.J., Anderson, H.A., Hanrahan, L.P., Olson, L.J., Sonzogni, W.C. Arch. Environ. Health (1989) [Pubmed]
  25. Measurement of diethylstilbestrol in plasma from patients with cancer of the prostate. Kemp, H.A., Read, G.F., Riad-Fahmy, D., Pike, A.W., Gaskell, S.J., Queen, K., Harper, M.E., Griffiths, K. Cancer Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  26. Synthesis and anion binding properties of 2,5-diamidothiophene polypyrrole Schiff base macrocycles. Sessler, J.L., Roznyatovskiy, V., Pantos, G.D., Borisova, N.E., Reshetova, M.D., Lynch, V.M., Khrustalev, V.N., Ustynyuk, Y.A. Org. Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Strain stability in biological systems treating recalcitrant organic compounds. Emanuelsson, E.A., Baptista, I.I., Mantalaris, A., Livingston, A.G. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Determination of quinacrine (mepacrine) in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. Björkman, S., Elisson, L.O. J. Chromatogr. (1987) [Pubmed]
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