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Chemical Compound Review

TECHNETIUM Tc 99m MEDRONATE     phosphonomethylphosphonic acid

Synonyms: Medronate, MDP-BRACCO, MEDRONIC ACID, M9508_ALDRICH, CHEMBL180570, ...
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Disease relevance of phosphonomethylphosphonic acid

  • Scintigraphic imaging with (99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP), or bone scanning, is much more sensitive in detecting acute osteomyelitis but lacks specificity [1].
  • It was concluded that a greater decrease in Ga-67 than in Tc-99m MDP uptake often occurs in patients successfully treated for primary Ewing sarcoma [2].
  • One hundred thirty patients with lung cancer were studied to determine the incidence of unilateral thoracic soft-tissue accumulation (UTS) of 99mTc methylene diphosphonate (MDP) [3].
  • Osteomyelitis and soft-tissue infection: differential diagnosis with 24 hour/4 hour ratio of Tc-99m MDP uptake [4].
  • 99mTc-Hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) was compared to 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) with respect to image quality, lesion detectability, and the uptake ratios of normal bone to soft tissue (B/S), metastatic bone to soft tissue (M/S) and bone metastases to normal bone (M/B) at 2 and 3 h after injection in the same subjects [5].

High impact information on phosphonomethylphosphonic acid

  • The uptake in the affected region did not differ significantly between the agents, although 99mTc-MDP tended to have higher values (MDP, 4.75 +/- 1.23 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g]; 67Ga, 2.05 +/- 0.54 %ID/g; granulocytes, 1.56 +/- 0.83 %ID/g; liposomes, 1.75 +/- 0.76 %ID/g, and IgG, 1.96 +/- 0.27 %ID/g) [6].
  • Periarticular bone sites associated with traumatic injury: false-positive findings with In-111-labeled white blood cell and Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy [7].
  • While avid accumulation of gallium-67 citrate and technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) occurs initially in most cases of primary Ewing sarcoma, uptake after therapy is less well defined [2].
  • Bone formation in the elongated zone was studied by computed tomography and [99mTc] methylene diphosphonate (MDP) scintigraphy [8].
  • Three patients with total knee arthroplasties, in which the tibial and patellar articulating surfaces consisted of a polyethylene-carbon fiber composite, demonstrated technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) deposition in the intraarticular space, whereas, the gallium-67 citrate images were normal [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of phosphonomethylphosphonic acid


Biological context of phosphonomethylphosphonic acid

  • Comparison of the kinetics of methylene-diphosphonate (MDP) and dicarboxypropan-diphosphonic acid (DPD), two radio-diagnostics for bone scintigraphy [11].
  • Artifactual reduction in bone density as a result of technetium-99m MDP for bone scanning: report of two cases [12].
  • The correlation between the uptake of Tc-99m MDP and the morphologic behavior of vascularized bone was investigated, simultaneously with bone labeling, contact microradiogram (CMR), and histology of an undecalcified sample [13].

Anatomical context of phosphonomethylphosphonic acid

  • Clamping the hepatic artery had minimal effect on the retention of MDP when administered alone [14].
  • Of the 18 cases whose 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans showed hot spots in the lower lumbar region of the spine and/or the pelvic bone, 8 had normal bone-marrow scintigrams [15].
  • MDP was injected regionally, via the hepatic artery, alone or co-administered with DSM, with or without subsequent occlusion of either the hepatic artery or the portal vein [14].
  • Areas of slight methylene diphosphonate (MDP) uptake were found at every periprosthetic site and areas of discrete to marked MDP uptake were commonly found in the acetabulum and/or the greater trochanter with both loosened and painless prostheses and are thus considered to be nonspecific findings [16].
  • Initial testing of the technique with methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone studies produced tracer flow rates of 0.000366 s-1 into bone and 0.001525 s-1 into interstitial fluid in patients with no known bone disease [17].

Associations of phosphonomethylphosphonic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of phosphonomethylphosphonic acid


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of phosphonomethylphosphonic acid


  1. (99m)Tc-interleukin-8 for imaging acute osteomyelitis. Gratz, S., Rennen, H.J., Boerman, O.C., Oyen, W.J., Burma, P., Corstens, F.H. J. Nucl. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Primary Ewing sarcoma: follow-up with Ga-67 scintigraphy. Estes, D.N., Magill, H.L., Thompson, E.I., Hayes, F.A. Radiology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Unilateral thoracic soft-tissue accumulation of bone agent in lung cancer. Levy, H.A., Park, C.H. J. Nucl. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Osteomyelitis and soft-tissue infection: differential diagnosis with 24 hour/4 hour ratio of Tc-99m MDP uptake. Israel, O., Gips, S., Jerushalmi, J., Frenkel, A., Front, D. Radiology. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Clinical comparison of 99mTc-HMDP and 99mTc-MDP. A multicenter study. Delaloye, B., Delaloye-Bischof, A., Dudczak, R., Koppenhagen, K., Mata, F., Penafiel, A., Maul, F.D., Pasquier, J. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Scintigraphic evaluation of experimental chronic osteomyelitis. Dams, E.T., Nijhof, M.W., Boerman, O.C., Laverman, P., Storm, G., Buma, P., Lemmens, J.A., van der Meer, J.W., Corstens, F.H., Oyen, W.J. J. Nucl. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Periarticular bone sites associated with traumatic injury: false-positive findings with In-111-labeled white blood cell and Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy. Seabold, J.E., Ferlic, R.J., Marsh, J.L., Nepola, J.V. Radiology. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Bone healing during lower limb lengthening by distraction epiphysiolysis. Van Roermund, P.M., Hoekstra, A., Ter Haar Romeny, B.M., Renooij, W. J. Nucl. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Radiophosphate visualization of the foreign body reaction to wear debris from total knee prosthesis. Rosenthall, L. J. Nucl. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Comparison of bone single-photon emission tomography and planar imaging in the detection of vertebral metastases in patients with back pain. Han, L.J., Au-Yong, T.K., Tong, W.C., Chu, K.S., Szeto, L.T., Wong, C.P. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Comparison of the kinetics of methylene-diphosphonate (MDP) and dicarboxypropan-diphosphonic acid (DPD), two radio-diagnostics for bone scintigraphy. Schroth, H.J., Hausinger, F., Garth, H., Oberhausen, E. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Artifactual reduction in bone density as a result of technetium-99m MDP for bone scanning: report of two cases. Chan, P.S., Binkley, N.C., Lalande, B.M., Young, S., Shaker, J.L. Journal of clinical densitometry : the official journal of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Experimental study of vascularized bone: quantitative analysis of bone scintigraphy and histology. Takato, T., Harii, K., Nakatsuka, T., Ohtake, T. Journal of reconstructive microsurgery. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Increasing hepatic arterial flow to hypovascular hepatic tumours using degradable starch microspheres. Chang, D., Jenkins, S.A., Grime, S.J., Nott, D.M., Cooke, T. Br. J. Cancer (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. The usefulness of bone-marrow scintigraphy in the detection of bone metastasis from prostatic cancer. Otsuka, N., Fukunaga, M., Sone, T., Yoneda, M., Saito, N., Tanaka, H., Tomomitsu, T., Yanagimoto, S., Muranaka, A., Morita, R. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Three-phase bone scintigraphy pattern of loosening in uncemented hip prostheses. Rubello, D., Borsato, N., Chierichetti, F., Zanco, P., Ferlin, G. European journal of nuclear medicine. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Tracer flows and 'difficult' organs. Rutland, M.D. Nuclear medicine communications. (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Acute osteomyelitis in children: combined Tc-99m and Ga-67 imaging. Lewin, J.S., Rosenfield, N.S., Hoffer, P.B., Downing, D. Radiology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. A comparison of skeletal uptakes of three diphosphonates by whole-body retention: concise communication. Fogelman, I., Pearson, D.W., Bessent, R.G., Tofe, A.J., Francis, M.D. J. Nucl. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Different roles of the diphosphate moieties of allylic and homoallylic diphosphates in prenyltransferase reaction. Gotoh, T., Koyama, T., Ogura, K. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Phosphonato complexes of platinum(II): kinetics of formation and phosphorus-31 NMR characterization studies. Slavin, L.L., Bose, R.N. J. Inorg. Biochem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Scintigraphic detection of prosthetic joint and soft tissue sepsis secondary to tuberculosis. Zeiger, L.S., Watters, W., Sherk, H. Clinical nuclear medicine. (1984) [Pubmed]
  23. A comparison of bone imaging with Tc-99m DPD and Tc-99m MDP: concise communication. Buell, U., Kleinhans, E., Zorn-Bopp, E., Reuschel, W., Muenzing, W., Moser, E.A., Seiderer, M. J. Nucl. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  24. Accumulation of bone-scanning agents in hepatoma. Desai, A.G., Schaffer, B., Park, C.H. Radiology. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Ipsilateral craniofacial uptake of Tc-99m MDP in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: incidence and implication. Nuruddin, R.N., Daud, A. Australasian radiology. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy in musculoskeletal tumors. Pinkas, L., Robinson, D., Halperin, N., Mindlin, L., Cohenpour, M., Baumer, M., Home, T. J. Nucl. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. The role of bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of talar dome fractures. Urman, M., Ammann, W., Sisler, J., Lentle, B.C., Llyod-Smith, R., Loomer, R., Fisher, C. J. Nucl. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  28. Nuclear arthrography: combined scintigraphic and radiographic procedure for diagnosis of total hip prosthesis loosening. Oyen, W.J., Lemmens, J.A., Claessens, R.A., van Horn, J.R., Slooff, T.J., Corstens, F.H. J. Nucl. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. FDG-PET for detection of osseous metastases from malignant primary bone tumours: comparison with bone scintigraphy. Franzius, C., Sciuk, J., Daldrup-Link, H.E., Jürgens, H., Schober, O. European journal of nuclear medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
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