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Chemical Compound Review

Imidocarb     1,3-bis[3-(4,5-dihydro-1H- imidazol-2...

Synonyms: Imidocarbe, Imidocarbo, Imidocarbum, CHEMBL427342, SureCN203921, ...
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Disease relevance of Imidocarb


High impact information on Imidocarb

  • Prevention by polyamines of the curative effect of amicarbalide and imidocarb for Trypanosoma brucei infections in mice [6].
  • In mice, intraperitoneal administration of imidocarb significantly increased serum IL-10 levels and lowered TNF-alpha levels [1].
  • In contrast, imidocarb inhibited LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production by peritoneal macrophages [1].
  • Cytotoxicity of imidocarb (100 microM) to hepatocyte monolayers was maximal after 72 hr treatment and dose-dependent above 10 microM imidocarb [7].
  • The depletion kinetics of imidocarb fitted a two-compartment model with alpha- and beta-phase half-lives of 31.7 and 48.5 days in liver and 34.9 and 120.7 days in muscle, respectively [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of Imidocarb


Biological context of Imidocarb


Anatomical context of Imidocarb


Associations of Imidocarb with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Imidocarb

  • The hypothesis that the toxic effects of imidocarb mediated by reduced cholinesterase activity might be intensified by hypomagnesaemia was tested in calves [20].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Imidocarb

  • The concentration of imidocarb (mean +/- SD) decreased between days 14 and 224 after treatment from 5.40 +/- 0.61 to 0.12 +/- 0.01 and from 1.05 +/- 0.31 to 0.06 +/- 0.02 microgram g-1 in liver and muscle, respectively [7].
  • A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of the antiprotozoal agent imidocarb in cattle kidney is developed [21].
  • Studies in sheep indicate that imidocarb is retained in edible tissues (Aliu et al.). In the present study we have set up and validated a high-performance liquid chromatography based method to investigate the retention of imidocarb in cattle liver [8].
  • Ultrastructural renal lesions were studied in 20 goats given one intramuscular injection of a lethal dose of imidocarb diproprionate (6.75 mg/kg) [22].
  • The dog was treated with imidocarb diproprionate, which resulted in the resolution of clinical signs, and subsequently Babesia DNA was not detectable by PCR in post-treatment samples [23].


  1. Imidocarb, a potent anti-protozoan drug, up-regulates interleukin-10 production by murine macrophages. Katayama, T., Hayashi, Y., Nagahira, K., Konishi, K., Yamaichi, K., Oikawa, S. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Imidocarb and parvaquone in the treatment of piroplasmosis (Babesia equi) in equids. Kuttler, K.L., Zaugg, J.L., Gipson, C.A. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. A comparison of the efficacy of imidocarb dipropionate and tetracycline hydrochloride in the treatment of canine ehrlichiosis. Price, J.E., Dolan, T.T. Vet. Rec. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Failure of imidocarb dipropionate to clear experimentally induced Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs. Eddlestone, S.M., Neer, T.M., Gaunt, S.D., Corstvet, R., Gill, A., Hosgood, G., Hegarty, B., Breitschwerdt, E.B. J. Vet. Intern. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Influence of Escherichia coli endotoxin-induced fever on pharmacokinetics of imidocarb in dogs and goats. Abdullah, A.S., Baggot, J.D. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Prevention by polyamines of the curative effect of amicarbalide and imidocarb for Trypanosoma brucei infections in mice. Bacchi, C.J., Nathan, H.C., Hutner, S.H., Duch, D.S., Nichol, C.A. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Imidocarb residues in edible bovine tissues and in vitro assessment of imidocarb metabolism and cytotoxicity. Coldham, N.G., Moore, A.S., Dave, M., Graham, P.J., Sivapathasundaram, S., Lake, B.G., Sauer, M.J. Drug Metab. Dispos. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Imidocarb depletion from cattle liver and mechanism of retention in isolated bovine hepatocytes. Coldham, N.G., Moore, A.S., Sivapathasundaram, S., Sauer, M.J. The Analyst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Administration of diminazene aceturate or imidocarb dipropionate for treatment of cytauxzoonosis in cats. Greene, C.E., Latimer, K., Hopper, E., Shoeffler, G., Lower, K., Cullens, F. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Ovine and caprine babesiosis in Iran: treatment with imidocarb. Hashemi-Fesharki, R. Vet. Rec. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Field observations on adult zebu bulls immunised against anaplasmosis by infection and treatment plus integrated tick control. Sannusi, A., Aliu, Y.O. Tropical animal health and production. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. Pharmacokinetics of imidocarb dipropionate in horses after intramuscular administration. Belloli, C., Crescenzo, G., Lai, O., Carofiglio, V., Marang, O., Ormas, P. Equine Vet. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. A cellular mechanism for imidocarb retention in edible bovine tissues. Moore, A.S., Coldham, N.G., Sauer, M.J. Toxicol. Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. In vitro responsiveness of Babesia bovis to imidocarb dipropionate and the selection of a drug-adapted line. Rodriguez, R.I., Trees, A.J. Vet. Parasitol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Preliminary development of a live drug-controlled vaccine against bovine babesiosis using the Mongolian gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus. Gray, J.S., Gannon, P. Vet. Parasitol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Absorption, distribution, and excretion of imidocarb dipropionate in sheep. Aliu, Y.O., Davis, R.H., Camp, B.J., Kuttler, K.L. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Ultrastructure of Babesia equi in ponies treated with imidocarb. Simpson, C.F., Neal, F.C. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  18. The biosynthesis of trypanothione and N1-glutathionylspermidine in Crithidia fasciculata. Fairlamb, A.H., Henderson, G.B., Cerami, A. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of imidocarb and levamisole on the experimental infection of BALB/c mice by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. Rodrigues, F.H., Afonso-Cardoso, S.R., Gomes, M.A., Beletti, M.E., Rocha, A., Guimarães, A.H., Candeloro, I., de Souza, M.A. Vet. Parasitol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Effect of induced hypomagnesaemia on the toxicity of imidocarb in calves. Michell, A.R., White, D.G., Higgins, A.J., Moss, P., Lees, P. Res. Vet. Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  21. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of imidocarb in cattle kidney with cation-exchange clean-up. Tarbin, J.A., Shearer, G. J. Chromatogr. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Ultrastructural renal lesions in goats given a lethal dose of imidocarb diproprionate. Corrier, D.E., Adams, L.G. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Detection and molecular characterization of a novel large Babesia species in a dog. Birkenheuer, A.J., Neel, J., Ruslander, D., Levy, M.G., Breitschwerdt, E.B. Vet. Parasitol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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