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Disease relevance of Babesia


High impact information on Babesia

  • Polymerase chain reaction testing, animal inoculation studies, and indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing were used to confirm the presence of Babesia microti in the donor's blood and to establish the presence of infection in 3 of the 6 recipients [6].
  • The failure of a 3-week course of chloroquine to eliminate an infection of Babesia microti acquired on Martha's Vineyard led to tests of selected drugs in hamsters infected with the strain from this patient [7].
  • Metabolism of the third component of complement (C3) and IgG was measured in rats before and during infection with the hemosporidium agent Babesia rodhaina [8].
  • The Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 1 (MSA-1) is an immunodominant membrane glycoprotein that is the target of invasion-blocking antibodies [9].
  • Growth-inhibitory effect of heparin on Babesia parasites [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Babesia


Biological context of Babesia


Anatomical context of Babesia

  • The Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 1 (MSA-1), a member of the variable merozoite surface antigen (VMSA) family, is an immunodominant glycoprotein which elicits antibodies that inhibit erythrocyte invasion [20].
  • Acquired immunity against the hemoprotozoan parasite Babesia bovis is believed to depend on activation of antigen-specific CD4(+) T lymphocytes and IFN-gamma production [21].
  • These studies indicated that TSP receptors are present on the surface of red blood cells infected with the two Babesia species, although these parasites do not alter the membranes of infected erythrocytes obviously and do not cause cerebral symptoms in their hosts [22].
  • The development of Babesia equi in salivary glands of adult female Boophilus microplus was observed under a light microscope using semithin sections stained with toluidine blue [23].
  • The virus was also isolated from the skin, nervous system tissue and lymph nodes of a calf killed 11 days after the start of DMS treatment in which a concurrent piroplasma infection was also, unexpectedly, discovered [24].

Associations of Babesia with chemical compounds

  • The presently used therapy for Babesia microti infections, a combination of quinine and clindamycin, does not always result in parasitologic cures [25].
  • A 37-kilodalton glycoprotein of Babesia divergens is a major component of a protective fraction containing low-molecular-mass culture-derived exoantigens [26].
  • Efficacy of azithromycin for treating Babesia microti infection in the hamster model [27].
  • There are many points of similarity between the nonspecific protection BCG and Corynebactium parvum provide against Babesia species and inhibition of tumor growth by these agents [28].
  • Glucan as an adjuvant for a murine Babesia microti immunization trial [29].

Gene context of Babesia

  • Up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma expression in the spleen and lungs of mice infected with the human Babesia isolate WA1 [30].
  • It was concluded that an effective vaccine against Babesia spp. should be designed to induce Th1 responses to maintain the parasitaemia at unfulminating levels and also maintain Th2 responses to clear the parasite from the body [31].
  • The requirement for IFN-gamma and/or TNF-alpha as co-stimulants with Babesia bovis merozoites for nitric oxide (NO) production was examined, as well as the regulatory role of IL-4 and IL-10 [32].
  • There was no significant enhancement of neutrophil killing when TNF or GM/CSF or both were added to either Babesia spp [33].
  • To assess the possibility of standardization of a commonly used indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test for detection of Babesia microti antibody in human sera, the results from four reference laboratories were compared [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Babesia

  • However, the ELISA with the GST/Be82 antigen cross-reacted with Babesia caballi-infected horse sera, despite the high rate of detection of B. equi [35].
  • As shown by Western blot analyses, immune sera from mice intraperitoneally injected with the Be82 gene product recognized the 82- and 52-kDa proteins of B. equi but not those of Babesia caballi [36].
  • An indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test was performed with human sera to detect cross-reactivity of Babesia microti antibodies with other species of Babesia parasites, with other blood and tissue parasites, and with various tick-borne organisms [37].
  • Successful homologous vaccination against Babesia bovis using a heparin-binding fraction of infected erythrocytes [38].
  • The dog was treated with imidocarb diproprionate, which resulted in the resolution of clinical signs, and subsequently Babesia DNA was not detectable by PCR in post-treatment samples [39].


  1. Artificial feeding of ixodid ticks. Waladde, S.M., Young, A.S., Morzaria, S.P. Parasitol. Today (Regul. Ed.) (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Genetic control of Propionibacterium acnes-induced protection of mice against Babesia microti. Wood, P.R., Clark, I.A. Infect. Immun. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. High-level expression and purification of a truncated merozoite antigen-2 of Babesia equi in Escherichia coli and its potential for immunodiagnosis. Huang, X., Xuan, X., Yokoyama, N., Xu, L., Suzuki, H., Sugimoto, C., Nagasawa, H., Fujisaki, K., Igarashi, I. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Tickborne infections as a cause of nonspecific febrile illness in Wisconsin. Belongia, E.A., Reed, K.D., Mitchell, P.D., Mueller-Rizner, N., Vandermause, M., Finkel, M.F., Kazmierczak, J.J. Clin. Infect. Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Identification of Babesia bovis L-lactate dehydrogenase as a potential chemotherapeutical target against bovine babesiosis. Bork, S., Okamura, M., Boonchit, S., Hirata, H., Yokoyama, N., Igarashi, I. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. A cluster of transfusion-associated babesiosis cases traced to a single asymptomatic donor. Dobroszycki, J., Herwaldt, B.L., Boctor, F., Miller, J.R., Linden, J., Eberhard, M.L., Yoon, J.J., Ali, N.M., Tanowitz, H.B., Graham, F., Weiss, L.M., Wittner, M. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Failure of chloroquine in human babesiosis (Babesia microti): case report and chemotherapeutic trials in hamsters. Miller, L.H., Neva, F.A., Gill, F. Ann. Intern. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Changes in C3 metabolism during protozoan infection (Babesia rodhaini) in rats. Chapman, W.E., Ward, P.A. J. Immunol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Sequence variation and immunologic cross-reactivity among Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 1 proteins from vaccine strains and vaccine breakthrough isolates. Leroith, T., Brayton, K.A., Molloy, J.B., Bock, R.E., Hines, S.A., Lew, A.E., McElwain, T.F. Infect. Immun. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Growth-inhibitory effect of heparin on Babesia parasites. Bork, S., Yokoyama, N., Ikehara, Y., Kumar, S., Sugimoto, C., Igarashi, I. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. The toxicity of adenosine analogues against Babesia bovis in vitro. Kerr, E.A., Gero, A.M. Int. J. Parasitol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Protection of mice against Babesia microti with cord factor, COAM, zymosan, glucan, Salmonella and Listeria. Clark, I.A. Parasite Immunol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Prostaglandin-mediated suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity to infected erythrocytes during Babesia microti infection in mice. Ruebush, M.J., Steel, L.K., Kennedy, D.A. Cell. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Pharmacokinetics of imidocarb dipropionate in horses after intramuscular administration. Belloli, C., Crescenzo, G., Lai, O., Carofiglio, V., Marang, O., Ormas, P. Equine Vet. J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Infectivity of cryopreserved Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma centrale for cattle after thawing, dilution and incubation at 30 degrees C. Jorgensen, W.K., de Vos, A.J., Dalgliesh, R.J. Vet. Parasitol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Genetic variation in the dimorphic regions of RAP-1 genes and rap-1 loci of Babesia bigemina. Hötzel, I., Suarez, C.E., McElwain, T.F., Palmer, G.H. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Short report: cloning of the Babesia gibsoni cytochrome B gene and isolation of three single nucleotide polymorphisms from parasites present after atovaquone treatment. Matsuu, A., Miyamoto, K., Ikadai, H., Okano, S., Higuchi, S. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. An amino acid substitution in the Babesia bovis dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene is correlated to cross-resistance against pyrimethamine and WR99210. Gaffar, F.R., Wilschut, K., Franssen, F.F., de Vries, E. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Characterisation of genes encoding a nucleoside monophosphate kinase and a L35 ribosomal protein from Babesia bovis. Silins, G.U., Blakeley, R.L., Riddles, P.W. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Characterization of allelic variation in the Babesia bovis merozoite surface antigen 1 (MSA-1) locus and identification of a cross-reactive inhibition-sensitive MSA-1 epitope. Suarez, C.E., Florin-Christensen, M., Hines, S.A., Palmer, G.H., Brown, W.C., McElwain, T.F. Infect. Immun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. A novel 20-kilodalton protein conserved in Babesia bovis and B. bigemina stimulates memory CD4(+) T lymphocyte responses in B. bovis-immune cattle. Brown, W.C., Ruef, B.J., Norimine, J., Kegerreis, K.A., Suarez, C.E., Conley, P.G., Stich, R.W., Carson, K.H., Rice-Ficht, A.C. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. In vitro adherence of erythrocytes infected with Babesia bigemina and Babesia rodhaini to thrombospondin. Parrodi, F., Wright, I.G., Kerr, J.D., Dobson, C. Int. J. Parasitol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Sporogony and experimental transmission of Babesia equi by Boophilus microplus. Guimarães, A.M., Lima, J.D., Ribeiro, M.F. Parasitol. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Reactivation in calves of Bovid herpesvirus 2 latent infection. Castrucci, G., Ferrari, M., Frigeri, F., Ranucci, S., Cilli, V., Tesei, B., Rampichini, L. Arch. Virol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. Evaluation of selected antiprotozoal drugs in the Babesia microti-hamster model. Marley, S.E., Eberhard, M.L., Steurer, F.J., Ellis, W.L., McGreevy, P.B., Ruebush, T.K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1997) [Pubmed]
  26. A 37-kilodalton glycoprotein of Babesia divergens is a major component of a protective fraction containing low-molecular-mass culture-derived exoantigens. Carcy, B., Precigout, E., Valentin, A., Gorenflot, A., Schrevel, J. Infect. Immun. (1995) [Pubmed]
  27. Efficacy of azithromycin for treating Babesia microti infection in the hamster model. Weiss, L.M., Wittner, M., Wasserman, S., Oz, H.S., Retsema, J., Tanowitz, H.B. J. Infect. Dis. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Suppression of babesiosis in BCG-infected mice and its correlation with tumor inhibition. Clark, I.A., Wills, E.J., Richmond, J.E., Allison, A.C. Infect. Immun. (1977) [Pubmed]
  29. Glucan as an adjuvant for a murine Babesia microti immunization trial. Benach, J.L., Habicht, G.S., Holbrook, T.W., Cook, J.A. Infect. Immun. (1982) [Pubmed]
  30. Up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma expression in the spleen and lungs of mice infected with the human Babesia isolate WA1. Hemmer, R.M., Ferrick, D.A., Conrad, P.A. Parasitol. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Helper T cell and antibody responses to infection of CBA mice with Babesia microti. Chen, D., Copeman, D.B., Burnell, J., Hutchinson, G.W. Parasite Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. IL-4 and IL-10 inhibition of IFN-gamma- and TNF-alpha-dependent nitric oxide production from bovine mononuclear phagocytes exposed to Babesia bovis merozoites. Goff, W.L., Johnson, W.C., Parish, S.M., Barrington, G.M., Elsasser, T.H., Davis, W.C., Valdez, R.A. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. The effect of neutrophils, tumor necrosis factor, and granulocyte macrophage/colony stimulating factor on Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina in culture. Tambrallo, L.J., Buening, G.M., McLaughlin, R.M. Vet. Parasitol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Diagnosis of babesiosis: evaluation of a serologic test for the detection of Babesia microti antibody. Krause, P.J., Telford, S.R., Ryan, R., Conrad, P.A., Wilson, M., Thomford, J.W., Spielman, A. J. Infect. Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Identification of a specific antigenic region of the P82 protein of Babesia equi and its potential use in serodiagnosis. Hirata, H., Xuan, X., Yokoyama, N., Nishikawa, Y., Fujisaki, K., Suzuki, N., Igarashi, I. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Cloning of a truncated Babesia equi gene encoding an 82-kilodalton protein and its potential use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Hirata, H., Ikadai, H., Yokoyama, N., Xuan, X., Fujisaki, K., Suzuki, N., Mikami, T., Igarashi, I. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  37. Indirect immunofluorescence test for human Babesia microti infection: antigenic specificity. Chisholm, E.S., Sulzer, A.J., Ruebush, T.K. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1986) [Pubmed]
  38. Successful homologous vaccination against Babesia bovis using a heparin-binding fraction of infected erythrocytes. Goodger, B.V., Commins, M.A., Wright, I.G., Waltisbuhl, D.J., Mirre, G.B. Int. J. Parasitol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  39. Detection and molecular characterization of a novel large Babesia species in a dog. Birkenheuer, A.J., Neel, J., Ruslander, D., Levy, M.G., Breitschwerdt, E.B. Vet. Parasitol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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