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Chemical Compound Review

ERBIUM     erbium

Synonyms: erbio, AG-G-95744, ERBIUM 99.9%, CHEBI:33379, CTK0H6979, ...
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Disease relevance of erbium

  • Erbium: YAG laser ablation of osteoma cutis: modifications of the approach [1].
  • In this plane, the erbium laser induced wound contracture was 12% at 1 month which remained stable and unchanged [2].
  • RESULTS: Irrespective of the erbium laser system used, complete reepithelialization typically occurred at 0.5 weeks and resolution of erythema was noted within 1-2 weeks postoperatively [3].
  • Root resection of endodontically treated teeth by erbium: YAG laser radiation [4].
  • Suitable indications for the erbium laser are stenoses in the canaliculi, in the sac, but also for bone lacrimal bone cutting [5].

High impact information on erbium


Chemical compound and disease context of erbium

  • If normal wound contracture, and not heat induced collagen contraction, is responsible for maintaining the initial skin tightening seen in CO2 laser resurfacing, then equal results would be expected from resurfacing with either CO2 or erbium lasers [2].
  • DESIGN: Ten patients with scarring after unilateral and bilateral cleft lip surgery were treated with a Dual Mode erbium yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser [11].

Biological context of erbium

  • Accordingly, our objective was to compare residual thermal damage, ablation, tissue shrinkage, and wound healing between a variable pulsewidth erbium YAG laser and a popular CO2 resurfacing laser [12].
  • The aim of this study was to determine the in vivo kinetics of PpIX generation in mouse tissues after topical ALA application enhanced by an erbium (Er):yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser [13].
  • However, we observed an immediate postoperative middle and high frequency loss of up to 75 dB on bone conduction threshold measurements 2 h after surgery, suggesting an acoustic traumatization by the erbium laser [14].
  • The question of the cost-effectiveness of erbium filtration as a radiation protection measure is also addressed [15].
  • Although the conventional, short-pulsed erbium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser provides substantial clinical improvement for pitted, facial acne scars, it shows less effective hemostasis and limited residual thermal effect in the dermis [16].

Anatomical context of erbium

  • Experimental erbium: YAG laser photoablation of trabecular meshwork in rabbits: an in-vivo study [17].
  • RESULTS: Perforation of the stapes foot plate can be performed with a few erbium laser pulses with high precision and a thermal damage zone of < 10 microns [18].
  • The erbium laser seems to represent an ideal instrument for middle ear surgery with all the advantages (precision, fiber optic transportable, high ablation efficiency, safety) desired for clinical application [18].
  • We developed a new and safe laser method (erbium laser ablation) for PZD, with the aim of producing a precise opening as well as ablation of some layers of the zona pellucida [19].
  • RESULTS: Just after irradiation, gross examination of "cold" (without a coagulation pulse) erbium sites showed a reddish papillary dermis consistent with conventional erbium laser ablation [12].

Associations of erbium with other chemical compounds


Gene context of erbium

  • Treatment of vitiligo with autologous epidermal grafting by means of pulsed erbium: YAG laser [25].
  • The Star Wars of dentistry. Using the erbium laser to treat tooth decay [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of erbium

  • CONCLUSIONS: Erbium laser phacoemulsification is effective for lenses with mild to moderate nuclear sclerosis [27].
  • The nonlinear refractive index n2 of silica fiber (24 m) and erbium-doped fiber (10 m) is measured to within an accuracy of 5% by use of time-delayed photorefractive beam coupling of intense 53-ps, 1.064-microm pulses that experience self-phase modulation in the fibers [28].
  • Double-blind study of erbium 169 injection (synoviorthesis) in rheumatoid digital joints [29].
  • A newly developed erbium (Er):YAG laser unit and handpiece was used for laser vitrectomy with predetermined parameters for cutting rate (70 Hz = 4200 cpm), maximal suction force (50 mmHg), and aspiration flow (20 ml/min) [30].
  • Erbium: YAG laser lithotripsy mechanism [31].


  1. Erbium: YAG laser ablation of osteoma cutis: modifications of the approach. Ochsendorf, F.R., Kaufmann, R. Archives of dermatology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Collagen tightening induced by carbon dioxide laser versus erbium: YAG laser. Fitzpatrick, R.E., Rostan, E.F., Marchell, N. Lasers in surgery and medicine. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Clinical and histologic evaluation of six erbium:YAG lasers for cutaneous resurfacing. Alster, T.S. Lasers in surgery and medicine. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Root resection of endodontically treated teeth by erbium: YAG laser radiation. Paghdiwala, A.F. Journal of endodontics. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Endonasal and transcanalicular Er:YAG laser dacryocystorhinostomy. Caversaccio, M., Frenz, M., Schär, P., Häusler, R. Rhinology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Erbium YAG laser for micromanipulation of oocytes and spermatozoa. Feichtinger, W., Strohmer, H., Radner, K.M. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. The compensation of potential changes produced by trivalent erbium ion in squid giant axon with applied potentials. Starzak, M.E., Starzak, R.J. Biophys. J. (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Erbium partitioning in a heavily doped transparent glass ceramic. Jones, G.C., Houde-Walter, S.N. Optics letters. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Pump-induced nonlinear refractive-index change in erbium- and ytterbium-doped fibers: theory and experiment. Garcia, H., Johnson, A.M., Oguama, F.A., Trivedi, S. Optics letters. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Influence of the water content in dental enamel and dentin on ablation with erbium YAG and erbium YSGG lasers. Meister, J., Franzen, R., Forner, K., Grebe, H., Stanzel, S., Lampert, F., Apel, C. Journal of biomedical optics. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Treatment of scars with Er:YAG laser in patients with cleft lip: a preliminary report. Nocini, P.F., D'Agostino, A., Trevisiol, L., Bertossi, D. The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Use of a novel erbium laser in a Yucatan minipig: a study of residual thermal damage, ablation, and wound healing as a function of pulse duration. Ross, E.V., McKinlay, J.R., Sajben, F.P., Miller, C.H., Barnette, D.J., Meehan, K.J., Chhieng, N.P., Deavers, M.J., Zelickson, B.D. Lasers in surgery and medicine. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. In vitro percutaneous absorption and in vivo protoporphyrin IX accumulation in skin and tumors after topical 5-aminolevulinic acid application with enhancement using an erbium:YAG laser. Shen, S.C., Lee, W.R., Fang, Y.P., Hu, C.H., Fang, J.Y. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Advantages and dangers of erbium laser application in stapedotomy. Häusler, R., Schär, P.J., Pratisto, H., Weber, H.P., Frenz, M. Acta Otolaryngol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Erbium filtration for dose reduction in dental radiography. Horner, K., Lawinski, C.P., Smith, N.J. The British journal of radiology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. Resurfacing of pitted facial acne scars using Er:YAG laser with ablation and coagulation mode. Jeong, J.T., Park, J.H., Kye, Y.C. Aesthetic plastic surgery. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Experimental erbium: YAG laser photoablation of trabecular meshwork in rabbits: an in-vivo study. Dietlein, T.S., Jacobi, P.C., Schröder, R., Krieglstein, G.K. Exp. Eye Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Temperature and pressure effects during erbium laser stapedotomy. Pratisto, H., Frenz, M., Ith, M., Romano, V., Felix, D., Grossenbacher, R., Altermatt, H.J., Weber, H.P. Lasers in surgery and medicine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Seventeen live births after the use of an erbium-yytrium aluminum garnet laser in the treatment of male factor infertility. Antinori, S., Versaci, C., Fuhrberg, P., Panci, C., Caffa, B., Gholami, G.H. Hum. Reprod. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Structure of YAG crystals doped/substituted with erbium and ytterbium. Dobrzycki, L., Bulska, E., Pawlak, D.A., Frukacz, Z., Woźniak, K. Inorganic chemistry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of various laser types and beam transmission methods on female organ tissue in the pig: an in vitro study. Spörri, S., Frenz, M., Altermatt, H.J., Bratschi, H.U., Romano, V., Forrer, M., Dreher, E., Weber, H.P. Lasers in surgery and medicine. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Synthesis, crystal structure, and porosity estimation of hydrated erbium terephthalate coordination polymers. Daiguebonne, C., Kerbellec, N., Bernot, K., Gérault, Y., Deluzet, A., Guillou, O. Inorganic chemistry. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Site-selective spectroscopy of the solid-state defect chemistry in erbium-doped barium titanate. Bak, J.D., Wright, J.C. The journal of physical chemistry. B, Condensed matter, materials, surfaces, interfaces & biophysical. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. The influence of Er. YAG laser application in fenestration to the inner ear. Oku, R., Tanaka, F., Tsukasaki, N., Kumagami, H., Takahashi, H. Auris, nasus, larynx. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Treatment of vitiligo with autologous epidermal grafting by means of pulsed erbium: YAG laser. Yang, J.S., Kye, Y.C. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. The Star Wars of dentistry. Using the erbium laser to treat tooth decay. Margolis, F. CDS review. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Pilot study on erbium laser phacoemulsification. Höh, H., Fischer, E. Ophthalmology (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. New approach to the measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of short (<25 m) lengths of silica and erbium-doped fibers. Garcia, H., Johnson, A.M., Oguama, F.A., Trivedi, S. Optics letters. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Double-blind study of erbium 169 injection (synoviorthesis) in rheumatoid digital joints. Menkes, C.J., Gô, A.L., Verrier, P., Aignan, M., Delbarre, F. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1977) [Pubmed]
  30. Comparison of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet-laser vitrectomy and mechanical vitrectomy: a clinical study. Petersen, H., Mrochen, M., Seiler, T. Ophthalmology (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Erbium: YAG laser lithotripsy mechanism. Chan, K.F., Lee, H., Teichman, J.M., Kamerer, A., McGuff, H.S., Vargas, G., Welch, A.J. J. Urol. (2002) [Pubmed]
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