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Chemical Compound Review

Iridal     (2Z)-2-[(2S,3S,4S)-4-hydroxy- 2-(3...

Synonyms: AC1NSWVH
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Disease relevance of Iridal

  • PDR subjects with neovascularization of iris, which suggests advanced retinal ischemia, showed a higher mean vitreous hHGF concentration than those without iridal neovascularization [7.33 +/- 1.16 ng/mL (n = 14) vs. 4.49 +/- 0.72 ng/mL (n = 19), P < 0.05] [1].
  • The humoral immune response to a virally induced feline model of human uveal melanoma was studied by examining sera from cats bearing iridal and choroidal melanomas for antibody to the feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA) [2].
  • In endotoxin-injected eyes, treatment with dimethylthiourea, especially at the highest dose, significantly reduced iridal hyperemia, aqueous humor cell number and protein and prostaglandin-E concentrations, and the ex vivo release of prostaglandin-E from the lens [3].
  • Affected dogs had statistically significant increases in hypersensitivity cellular responses against corneal and iridal antigens [4].
  • The membranes originated as endothelial budding from the anterior iridal stroma and seemed to mature into fibrous or fibrovascular membranes that were often followed by hyphema or, occasionally, glaucoma [5].

High impact information on Iridal


Chemical compound and disease context of Iridal


Biological context of Iridal


Anatomical context of Iridal

  • A functional study on prostanoid receptors involved in cultured human iridal melanocyte stimulation [12].
  • The outer choroidal layer, the anterior iridal surface, and the base of the ciliary body more frequently contained active inflammatory cells than the other uveal areas [13].
  • The results of this study thus strongly indicate that there seems to be an active melanin synthesis in the adult eye of the mouse, most pronounced in iridal melanocytes and in the iridal pigment epithelium [14].
  • The presence of immature melanosomes seen in electron micrographs from iridal pigment cells and melanocytes of one year old mice indicate that new melanosomes are formed in these cells also in adult animals [14].
  • The specific activity of iridal on human malaria parasite and on tumor cell lines is discussed [15].

Associations of Iridal with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Iridal


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Iridal


  1. Increased vitreous concentrations of human hepatocyte growth factor in proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Nishimura, M., Ikeda, T., Ushiyama, M., Nanbu, A., Kinoshita, S., Yoshimura, M. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Serum antibodies against feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen in cats bearing virally induced uveal melanomas. Niederkorn, J.Y., Shadduck, J.A., Albert, D., Essex, M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Dimethylthiourea inhibits the inflammatory response to intravitreally-injected endotoxin. Fleisher, L.N., Ferrell, J.B., Olson, N.C., McGahan, M.C. Exp. Eye Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Chronic superficial keratitis in dogs: detection of cellular hypersensitivity. Campbell, L.H., Okuda, H.K., Lipton, D.E., Reed, C. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. The pathogenesis and significance of pre-iridal fibrovascular membrane in domestic animals. Peiffer, R.L., Wilcock, B.P., Yin, H. Vet. Pathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression and localization of FP and EP prostanoid receptor subtypes in human ocular tissues. Schlötzer-Schrehardt, U., Zenkel, M., Nüsing, R.M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Sensory receptors in the anterior uvea of the cat's eye. An in vitro study. Mintenig, G.M., Sánchez-Vives, M.V., Martin, C., Gual, A., Belmonte, C. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Lipid mediators of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced uveitis. Fleisher, L.N., Ferrell, J.B., Smith, M.G., McGahan, M.C. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Photobiology of ocular melanocytes and melanoma. Hu, D.N. Photochem. Photobiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Tachykinins as enhancers of prostaglandin E2-induced intraocular inflammation. Tsuji, F., Hamada, M., Shirasawa, E. Ocul. Immunol. Inflamm. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of ocular blood flow during increases of arterial blood pressure. Michelson, G., Groh, M., Gründler, A. The British journal of ophthalmology. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. A functional study on prostanoid receptors involved in cultured human iridal melanocyte stimulation. Hu, D.N., McCormick, S.A., Woodward, D.F. Exp. Eye Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Macrophage subpopulations and RPE elimination in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune pigment epithelial protein-induced uveitis (EAPU). Broekhuyse, R.M., Kuhlmann, E.D., Peters, T.A., Kuijpers, W. Exp. Eye Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Age-related melanogenesis in the eye of mice, studied by microautoradiography of 3H-methimazole, a specific marker of melanin synthesis. Lindquist, N.G., Larsson, B.S., Stjernschantz, J., Sjöquist, B. Exp. Eye Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Antiplasmodial and antifungal activities of iridal, a plant triterpenoid. Benoit-Vical, F., Imbert, C., Bonfils, J.P., Sauvaire, Y. Phytochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of prostaglandins A(2), E(1), F(2 alpha)and latanoprost on cultured human iridal melanocytes. Hu, D.N., Stjernschantz, J., McCormick, S.A. Exp. Eye Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Increased pigmentation of iridial melanocytes in primates induced by a prostaglandin analogue. Lindquist, N.G., Larsson, B.S., Stjernschantz, J. Exp. Eye Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Iris vasculopathy in galactose-fed rats. Caspers-Velu, L.E., Wadhwani, K.C., Rapoport, S.I., Kador, P.F. Exp. Eye Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Ultrastructural ocular lesions of 6-aminonicotinamide toxicosis in rabbits. Render, J.A., Turek, J.J., Hinsman, E.J., Carlton, W.W. Vet. Pathol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Uveal melanocytes produce matrix metalloproteinases-2 and -9 in vitro. Chu, S.C., Hu, D.N., Yang, S.F., Yang, P.Y., Hsieh, Y.S., Huang, S.M., Yu, G., McCormick, S.A. Pigment Cell Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Iridal glycosides from Iris spuria (Zeal), cultivated in Egypt. Marner, F.J., Singab, A.N., Al-Azizi, M.M., El-Emary, N.A., Schäfer, M. Phytochemistry (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Effects of transcorneal iridal photocoagulation on the canine corneal endothelium using a diode laser. Chandler, M.J., Moore, P.A., Dietrich, U.M., Martin, C.L., Vidyashankar, A., Chen, G. Veterinary ophthalmology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Iris fluorescein angiography and fluorescein gonioscopic photography after implantation of Choyce Mk IX anterior chamber lenses. Krause, U., Eriksen, H.L. Acta ophthalmologica. (1988) [Pubmed]
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