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Chemical Compound Review

Achilleic acid     (Z)-prop-1-ene-1,2,3- tricarboxylic acid

Synonyms: cis-Aconate, cis-aconitate, Equisetic acid, ACONITIC ACID, Citridic acid, ...
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Disease relevance of Citridic acid


High impact information on Citridic acid

  • In contrast, when measured by the conversion of isocitrate to cis-aconitate, S711D and S711E displayed substantial activity, indicating that phosphorylation impairs the citrate but not isocitrate mode of aconitase function [6].
  • We conclude from these data that, on addition of any one of the three substrates, cis-aconitate is the predominant species bound to Fea of the cluster along with solvent HxO and that cis-aconitate is bound in the citrate mode (carboxyl at C-2) [7].
  • We conjugated the chemotherapy agent daunorubicin to the anti-T-cell monoclonal antibody T101 using an active ester intermediate of the acid-labile linker cis-aconitate anhydride [8].
  • S-Nitrosothiols and the NONOate sper/NO plus gluthathione (GSH) activated IRE binding by IRP whereas oxyhemoglobin prevented enhancement of this binding by SIN-1/SOD and sper/NO plus GSH. cis-Aconitate, substrate, also abolished the effect of SIN-1/SOD on IRE binding by IRP [9].
  • We have exploited this synchrony to determine the respective importance and hierarchy of the known triggers for differentiation (cis aconitate, temperature drop) for individual components of both differentiation and the cell cycle [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Citridic acid


Biological context of Citridic acid


Anatomical context of Citridic acid


Associations of Citridic acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Citridic acid

  • The cytosolic and mitochondrial aconitase activity was 64.8% or 61.0% and 20.1% or 19.4% of the total rat liver aconitase activity when cis-aconitate or isocitrate was used as substrate [22].
  • Stumpy populations emanating from these infections transformed rapidly and synchronously into dividing procyclic forms when triggered with cis-aconitate and a temperature shift [23].
  • Addition of citrate/cis-aconitate at 37 degrees C to bloodstream forms leads to the formation of aconitase and proline oxidase [24].
  • Cell division did not occur until 30-40 h after transfer to 27 degrees C. Various characteristics of this system were examined, including the effect of the feeder layer, the type of medium, the presence of the metabolites cis-aconitate and citrate, the preadaptation period, and the trypanosome cell concentration [25].


  1. Mutational analysis of active site residues in pig heart aconitase. Zheng, L., Kennedy, M.C., Beinert, H., Zalkin, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Experimental visceral leishmaniasis: role of trans-aconitic acid in combined chemotherapy. Kar, S., Kar, K., Bhattacharya, P.K., Ghosh, D.K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. 3-Isopropylmalate is the major endogenous substrate of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae trans-aconitate methyltransferase. Katz, J.E., Dumlao, D.S., Wasserman, J.I., Lansdown, M.G., Jung, M.E., Faull, K.F., Clarke, S. Biochemistry (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. The FAD-dependent tricarballylate dehydrogenase (TcuA) enzyme of Salmonella enterica converts tricarballylate into cis-aconitate. Lewis, J.A., Escalante-Semerena, J.C. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Wheat pasture poisoning. I. An evaluation of cereal pastures as related to tetany in beef cows. Bohman, V.R., Horn, F.P., Stewart, B.A., Mathers, A.C., Grunes, D.L. J. Anim. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  6. Selective inhibition of the citrate-to-isocitrate reaction of cytosolic aconitase by phosphomimetic mutation of serine-711. Pitula, J.S., Deck, K.M., Clarke, S.L., Anderson, S.A., Vasanthakumar, A., Eisenstein, R.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Mode of substrate carboxyl binding to the [4Fe-4S]+ cluster of reduced aconitase as studied by 17O and 13C electron-nuclear double resonance spectroscopy. Kennedy, M.C., Werst, M., Telser, J., Emptage, M.H., Beinert, H., Hoffman, B.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  8. Superiority of an acid-labile daunorubicin-monoclonal antibody immunoconjugate compared to free drug. Dillman, R.O., Johnson, D.E., Shawler, D.L., Koziol, J.A. Cancer Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. Modulation of iron regulatory protein functions. Further insights into the role of nitrogen- and oxygen-derived reactive species. Bouton, C., Raveau, M., Drapier, J.C. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Commitment to differentiation and cell cycle re-entry are coincident but separable events in the transformation of African trypanosomes from their bloodstream to their insect form. Matthews, K.R., Gull, K. J. Cell. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Aconitase: its source of catalytic protons. Kuo, D.J., Rose, I.A. Biochemistry (1987) [Pubmed]
  12. 3-fluoro-3-deoxycitrate: a probe for mechanistic study of citrate-utilizing enzymes. Rokita, S.E., Srere, P.A., Walsh, C.T. Biochemistry (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Mutagenic investigation of flavourings: dimethyl succinate, ethyl pyruvate and aconitic acid are negative in the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome test. Andersen, P.H., Jensen, N.J. Food additives and contaminants. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. The Tricarballylate utilization (tcuRABC) genes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. Lewis, J.A., Horswill, A.R., Schwem, B.E., Escalante-Semerena, J.C. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. The use of transgenic Trypanosoma brucei to identify compounds inducing the differentiation of bloodstream forms to procyclic forms. Sbicego, S., Vassella, E., Kurath, U., Blum, B., Roditi, I. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Altered intracellular polyamines in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei brucei: transformation to procyclic trypomastigotes. Giffin, B.F., McCann, P.P. Acta Trop. (1993) [Pubmed]
  17. Stimulation of citrate oxidation and transport in human placental mitochondria by L-malate. Swierczyński, J., Scislowski, P., Aleksandrowicz, Z., Zelewski, L. Acta Biochim. Pol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  18. The acnD genes of Shewenella oneidensis and Vibrio cholerae encode a new Fe/S-dependent 2-methylcitrate dehydratase enzyme that requires prpF function in vivo. Grimek, T.L., Escalante-Semerena, J.C. J. Bacteriol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Metabolism of aromatic compounds by fungi. Kinetic properties and mechanism of 3-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate cyclase from Aspergillus niger. Thatcher, D.R., Cain, R.B. Eur. J. Biochem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  20. Structural basis for aconitase activity inactivation by butanedione and binding of substrates and inhibitors. Gawron, O., Jones, L. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1977) [Pubmed]
  21. Kinetics and product analysis of the reaction catalysed by recombinant homoaconitase from Thermus thermophilus. Jia, Y., Tomita, T., Yamauchi, K., Nishiyama, M., Palmer, D.R. Biochem. J. (2006) [Pubmed]
  22. Aconitase activity in rat liver. Konstantinova, S.G., Russanov, E.M. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  23. High molecular mass agarose matrix supports growth of bloodstream forms of pleomorphic Trypanosoma brucei strains in axenic culture. Vassella, E., Boshart, M. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. The effect of citrate/cis-aconitate on oxidative metabolism during transformation of Trypanosoma brucei. Overath, P., Czichos, J., Haas, C. Eur. J. Biochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Trypanosoma brucei: differentiation of in vitro-grown bloodstream trypomastigotes into procyclic forms. Simpson, A.M., Hughes, D., Simpson, L. J. Protozool. (1985) [Pubmed]
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