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Gene Review

STARD3  -  StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CAB1, MLN 64, MLN64, Metastatic lymph node gene 64 protein, Protein CAB1, ...
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Disease relevance of STARD3


High impact information on STARD3

  • This mutant exhibited hypersensitive induction of CAB1, CAB2, and the small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RBCS) promoters in the very low fluence range of red light and a hypersensitive response in hypocotyl growth in continuous red light of higher fluences [5].
  • Human metastatic lymph node 64 (MLN64) is a transmembrane protein that shares homology with the cholesterol-binding vertebrate steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR)-related lipid transfer domain (START) and is involved in cholesterol traffic and steroid synthesis [6].
  • In contrast to StarD4, expression of StarD5 and MLN64 was not sterol-regulated [7].
  • The StAR and MLN64 START domains bind 1 mole of 14C cholesterol per mole of protein in vitro [8].
  • Wild-type MLN64 increased pregnenolone secretion in this system 2-fold [2].

Biological context of STARD3


Anatomical context of STARD3


Associations of STARD3 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of STARD3

  • Antiserum to StAR cross-reacts with N-218 MLN64, indicating the presence of similar epitopes in both proteins [11].

Other interactions of STARD3

  • NPC2, NPC1 and MLN64 may act in an ordered sequence to sense cholesterol, effect sterol movement, and consequently, influence the process of vesicular trafficking [16].
  • In living cells, the expression of paired yellow fluorescent and cyan fluorescent fusion proteins show MENTHO homo-interaction and its interaction with MLN64 [12].
  • MLN64 overexpression increased the number of actin and p34-Arc-positive patches on late endosomes, enhanced the fusion of late endocytic organelles in an actin-dependent manner, and stimulated the deposition of sterol in late endosomes harboring the protein [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of STARD3


  1. Isolation of a candidate gene, CAB1, for cholesterol transport to mitochondria from the c-ERBB-2 amplicon by a modified cDNA selection method. Akiyama, N., Sasaki, H., Ishizuka, T., Kishi, T., Sakamoto, H., Onda, M., Hirai, H., Yazaki, Y., Sugimura, T., Terada, M. Cancer Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. MLN64 contains a domain with homology to the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) that stimulates steroidogenesis. Watari, H., Arakane, F., Moog-Lutz, C., Kallen, C.B., Tomasetto, C., Gerton, G.L., Rio, M.C., Baker, M.E., Strauss, J.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Metastatic lymph node 64 (MLN64), a gene overexpressed in breast cancers, is regulated by Sp/KLF transcription factors. Alpy, F., Boulay, A., Moog-Lutz, C., Andarawewa, K.L., Degot, S., Stoll, I., Rio, M.C., Tomasetto, C. Oncogene (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular cloning of human GRB-7 co-amplified with CAB1 and c-ERBB-2 in primary gastric cancer. Kishi, T., Sasaki, H., Akiyama, N., Ishizuka, T., Sakamoto, H., Aizawa, S., Sugimura, T., Terada, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. An Arabidopsis mutant hypersensitive to red and far-red light signals. Genoud, T., Millar, A.J., Nishizawa, N., Kay, S.A., Schäfer, E., Nagatani, A., Chua, N.H. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. The Drosophila gene Start1: a putative cholesterol transporter and key regulator of ecdysteroid synthesis. Roth, G.E., Gierl, M.S., Vollborn, L., Meise, M., Lintermann, R., Korge, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. The cholesterol-regulated StarD4 gene encodes a StAR-related lipid transfer protein with two closely related homologues, StarD5 and StarD6. Soccio, R.E., Adams, R.M., Romanowski, M.J., Sehayek, E., Burley, S.K., Breslow, J.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Structure and lipid transport mechanism of a StAR-related domain. Tsujishita, Y., Hurley, J.H. Nat. Struct. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. RNA interference-based functional dissection of the 17q12 amplicon in breast cancer reveals contribution of coamplified genes. Kao, J., Pollack, J.R. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Gene expression profiling detects gene amplification and differentiates tumor types in breast cancer. Dressman, M.A., Baras, A., Malinowski, R., Alvis, L.B., Kwon, I., Walz, T.M., Polymeropoulos, M.H. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. N-218 MLN64, a protein with StAR-like steroidogenic activity, is folded and cleaved similarly to StAR. Bose, H.S., Whittal, R.M., Huang, M.C., Baldwin, M.A., Miller, W.L. Biochemistry (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Functional characterization of the MENTAL domain. Alpy, F., Latchumanan, V.K., Kedinger, V., Janoshazi, A., Thiele, C., Wendling, C., Rio, M.C., Tomasetto, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. MLN64 is involved in actin-mediated dynamics of late endocytic organelles. Hölttä-Vuori, M., Alpy, F., Tanhuanpää, K., Jokitalo, E., Mutka, A.L., Ikonen, E. Mol. Biol. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein homolog MLN64, a late endosomal cholesterol-binding protein. Alpy, F., Stoeckel, M.E., Dierich, A., Escola, J.M., Wendling, C., Chenard, M.P., Vanier, M.T., Gruenberg, J., Tomasetto, C., Rio, M.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Molten globule structure and steroidogenic activity of N-218 MLN64 in human placental mitochondria. Tuckey, R.C., Bose, H.S., Czerwionka, I., Miller, W.L. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Sterols and intracellular vesicular trafficking: lessons from the study of NPC1. Strauss, J.F., Liu, P., Christenson, L.K., Watari, H. Steroids (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. New amplified and highly expressed genes discovered in the ERBB2 amplicon in breast cancer by cDNA microarrays. Kauraniemi, P., Bärlund, M., Monni, O., Kallioniemi, A. Cancer Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Total hip replacement using the cementless "Bio-direct" femoral component and the "CAB 1" self-threading acetabular component. Agrifoglio, E., Federici, A., Sanguineti, F., Di Stadio, M. Italian journal of orthopaedics and traumatology. (1991) [Pubmed]
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