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Gene Review

CHAD  -  chondroadherin

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: Cartilage leucine-rich protein, Chondroadherin, SLRR4A
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Disease relevance of CHAD


Psychiatry related information on CHAD

  • In 1993 a survey of Pliocene and Pleistocene formations in the Borkou-Ennedi-Tibesti Province of Chad (B.E.T.) led to the discovery of 17 new sites in the region of Bahr el Ghazal (classical Arabic for River of the Gazelles) near Koro Toro [6].

High impact information on CHAD


Chemical compound and disease context of CHAD


Biological context of CHAD


Anatomical context of CHAD

  • We show that complexes of monomeric collagen type II and chondroadherin can be released under non-denaturing conditions from articular cartilage treated with p-aminophenylmercuric acetate to activate resident matrix metalloproteinases [8].
  • It is suggested, therefore, that the pancreatic islet function in CHAD is closely associated with the morphologic changes in islet endocrine cells [12].
  • Changes in the pancreatic A-, B- and D-cell populations during development of diabetes in spontaneously diabetic Chinese hamsters of the Asahikawa colony (CHAD) [12].
  • Electric organ discharges (EODs) of Gymnarchus niloticus in its natural habitat (Chari River, Chad Basin) and accompanying ecological data (pH, conductivity, temperature, turbidity, O2 dissolved) were recorded [13].

Associations of CHAD with chemical compounds


Other interactions of CHAD

  • There were significantly positive correlations between plasma and pancreatic insulin, and plasma and pancreatic glucagon levels in CHAD (P less than 0.01) [12].
  • Significant correlations were found between plasma and pancreatic hormone levels (except for somatostatin) and the advance of diabetes in CHAD (P less than 0.01) [12].
  • As compared with RA-SF, significantly higher numbers of OA-SF adhering to collagen type II, OPN and CHAD could be detected (P < 0.05) [16].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CHAD

  • Purified complexes as well as complexes formed in vitro between recombinant chondroadherin and collagen type II were studied by electron microscopy [8].
  • All patients received three to 14 courses of CHAD chemotherapy with a clinical response rate (complete [CR] and partial [PR]) of 91% [17].
  • The patients received 3-14 courses of CHAD combination chemotherapy, with a response rate (CR + PR) in the evaluable (Stage IIIB) patients of 91% [1].
  • However, DDP-MECY had a statistically significantly lower relapse rate (P less than 0.02) and a statistically significantly higher negative second-look laparotomy rate than did DDP-CHAD [18].
  • Out of 4176 sera from asymptomatic adults originating from Chad, equatorial Guinea and Gabon tested for HIV-1 antibodies, 146 (3.5%) were positive by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) [19].


  1. Combined modality treatment for stage III ovarian carcinoma. Rizel, S., Biran, S., Anteby, S.O., Brufman, G., Sulkes, A., Milwidsky, A., Weshler, Z., Fuks, Z. Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Ten-year evaluation of hypertension, overweight, cholesterol, and smoking control: the CHAD program in Jerusalem. Community Syndrome of Hypertension, Atherosclerosis and Diabetes. Gofin, J., Gofin, R., Abramson, J.H., Ban, R. Preventive medicine. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Cyclophosphamide, hexamethylmelamine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (CHAD) as second-line chemotherapy for ovarian adenocarcinoma. Piver, M.S., Lele, S., Barlow, J.J. Cancer treatment reports. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Respiratory viruses and mycoplasma as cofactors for epidemic group A meningococcal meningitis. Moore, P.S., Hierholzer, J., DeWitt, W., Gouan, K., Djoré, D., Lippeveld, T., Plikaytis, B., Broome, C.V. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Intercontinental spread of an epidemic group A Neisseria meningitidis strain. Moore, P.S., Reeves, M.W., Schwartz, B., Gellin, B.G., Broome, C.V. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. The first australopithecine 2,500 kilometres west of the Rift Valley (Chad). Brunet, M., Beauvilain, A., Coppens, Y., Heintz, E., Moutaye, A.H., Pilbeam, D. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Integrin alpha2beta1 is a receptor for the cartilage matrix protein chondroadherin. Camper, L., Heinegârd, D., Lundgren-Akerlund, E. J. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Association of chondroadherin with collagen type II. Mansson, B., Wenglén, C., Mörgelin, M., Saxne, T., Heinegård, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. The CHAD and HAD regimens in advanced ovarian cancer: combination chemotherapy including cyclophosphamide, hexamethylmelamine, adriamycin, and cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II). Vogl, S.E., Berenzweig, M., Kaplan, B.H., Moukhtar, M., Bulkin, W. Cancer treatment reports. (1979) [Pubmed]
  10. The structure and chromosome location of the human chondroadherin gene (CHAD). Grover, J., Chen, X.N., Korenberg, J.R., Roughley, P.J. Genomics (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Are recession populations of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) remnants of past swarms? Ibrahim, K.M., Sourrouille, P., Hewitt, G.M. Mol. Ecol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Changes in the pancreatic A-, B- and D-cell populations during development of diabetes in spontaneously diabetic Chinese hamsters of the Asahikawa colony (CHAD). Iwashima, Y., Watanabe, K., Makino, I. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Electric organ discharges of the weakly electric fish Gymnarchus niloticus (Mormyriformes) in its natural habitat. Moller, P., Serrier, J., Belbenoit, P. Experientia (1976) [Pubmed]
  14. Stage III-IV epithelial carcinoma of the ovary: is the second-look operation of any value for the patient? Atad, J., Bornstein, J., Steiner, M., Weill, S., Lurie, M., Abramovici, H. Isr. J. Med. Sci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Coverage of pilot parenteral vaccination campaign against canine rabies in N'Djaména, Chad. Kayali, U., Mindekem, R., Yémadji, N., Vounatsou, P., Kaninga, Y., Ndoutamia, A.G., Zinsstag, J. Bull. World Health Organ. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Differential adherence of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts to cartilage and bone matrix proteins and its implication for osteoarthritis pathogenesis. Schedel, J., Wenglén, C., Distler, O., Müller-Ladner, U., Schölmerich, J., Heinegård, D., Krenn, V. Scand. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Chemotherapeutic and surgical induction of pathological complete remission and whole abdominal irradiation for consolidation does not enhance the cure of stage III ovarian carcinoma. Fuks, Z., Rizel, S., Biran, S. J. Clin. Oncol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Cisplatin-MECY (methotrexate-leucovorin rescue plus cyclophosphamide) versus cisplatin-CHAD (cyclophosphamide, hexamethylmelamine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin) as initial chemotherapy in stage III-IV ovarian adenocarcinoma. Barlow, J.J., Lele, S.B. Cancer treatment reports. (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Interpretation of antibodies reacting solely with human retroviral core proteins in western equatorial Africa. Delaporte, E., Peeters, M., Simon, F., Dupont, A., Schrijvers, D., Kerouedan, D., Josse, R., Merlin, M., Trebucq, A., Collet, M. AIDS (1989) [Pubmed]
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