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MeSH Review

Saudi Arabia

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Disease relevance of Saudi Arabia


Psychiatry related information on Saudi Arabia


High impact information on Saudi Arabia

  • Thirty-two (17%) patients were referred from Gassim Region at the north central part of Saudi Arabia. In contrast, only 5% of total cancer patient referrals were from this area [3].
  • Mutations in CYP1B1, the gene for cytochrome P4501B1, are the predominant cause of primary congenital glaucoma in Saudi Arabia [7].
  • Genetic background of congenital chloride diarrhea in high-incidence populations: Finland, Poland, and Saudi Arabia and Kuwait [8].
  • Twenty-one unrelated individuals from Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, and Israel with both severe G6PD deficiency and B-like electrophoretic mobility were tested for both mutations by using amplification followed by digestion with appropriate restriction enzymes [9].
  • Eleven strains isolated from hospitalized patients from 1994 to 1999 in Saudi Arabia were sequenced in the envelope, NS3, and NS5 genes [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Saudi Arabia

  • Shamma, a complex mixture of powdered tobacco, slaked lime, ash, oils, spices and other additives, has been linked to oral cancer in Saudi Arabia. Shamma varies in colour and odour due to the nature of the additives which characterize different brands [11].
  • Genetic homogeneity among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from Saudi Arabia [12].
  • METHODS: Prospective surveillance for ISSI at a 540-bed hospital in Saudi Arabia by using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions for infection and the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) system risk index [13].
  • We describe an outbreak with Burkholderia cepacia infection in 2 major hospitals affiliated to the National Guard, related to an intrinsic contamination of a locally manufactured, multidose Albuterol nebulization solution (Tabouk Pharmaceutical Company, Tabouk, Saudi Arabia) and we report the interventions taken to interrupt this outbreak [14].
  • Average genetic relatedness among 44 Escherichia coli strains of serotypes O1, O2, and O78 isolated mainly from birds with colibacillosis or swollen-head syndrome from France or Saudi Arabia was estimated based on allelic variation detected by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis [15].

Biological context of Saudi Arabia


Anatomical context of Saudi Arabia


Associations of Saudi Arabia with chemical compounds

  • Saudi Arabia was considered to have chloroquine-susceptible P. falciparum [26].
  • Prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents [27].
  • The results of this study show for the first time the presence of a novel 5-flucytosine-resistant clade of C. dubliniensis (Cd25 group III) that is predominant among isolates from Saudi Arabia and Egypt and absent from a previously characterized international collection of 98 isolates from 15 countries [28].
  • Mechanisms of gentamicin resistance in gram-negative bacilli in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia [29].
  • At two months postsurgery and with a regimen of 200 mg of itraconazole twice a day, the patient was doing well and returned to Saudi Arabia. His condition subsequently deteriorated, however, and following a 7-month course of itraconzole, he expired [30].

Gene context of Saudi Arabia


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Saudi Arabia


  1. Intercontinental spread of an epidemic group A Neisseria meningitidis strain. Moore, P.S., Reeves, M.W., Schwartz, B., Gellin, B.G., Broome, C.V. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Comparative efficacy of ceftriaxone and rifampicin in eradicating pharyngeal carriage of group A Neisseria meningitidis. Schwartz, B., Al-Tobaiqi, A., Al-Ruwais, A., Fontaine, R.E., A'ashi, J., Hightower, A.W., Broome, C.V., Music, S.I. Lancet (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Water contamination and esophageal cancer at Gassim Region, Saudi Arabia. Amer, M.H., El-Yazigi, A., Hannan, M.A., Mohamed, M.E. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in male Saudi Arabs. Bacchus, R.A., Bell, J.L., Madkour, M., Kilshaw, B. Diabetologia (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus in rural Saudi Arabia. Fatani, H.H., Mira, S.A., el-Zubier, A.G. Diabetes Care (1987) [Pubmed]
  6. The frequency of visual hallucinations in schizophrenic patients in Saudi Arabia. Zarroug, E.T. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Mutations in CYP1B1, the gene for cytochrome P4501B1, are the predominant cause of primary congenital glaucoma in Saudi Arabia. Bejjani, B.A., Lewis, R.A., Tomey, K.F., Anderson, K.L., Dueker, D.K., Jabak, M., Astle, W.F., Otterud, B., Leppert, M., Lupski, J.R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Genetic background of congenital chloride diarrhea in high-incidence populations: Finland, Poland, and Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Höglund, P., Auranen, M., Socha, J., Popinska, K., Nazer, H., Rajaram, U., Al Sanie, A., Al-Ghanim, M., Holmberg, C., de la Chapelle, A., Kere, J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Origin and spread of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variant (G6PD-Mediterranean) in the Middle East. Kurdi-Haidar, B., Mason, P.J., Berrebi, A., Ankra-Badu, G., al-Ali, A., Oppenheim, A., Luzzatto, L. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Low diversity of Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus, Saudi Arabia, 1994-1999. Charrel, R.N., Zaki, A.M., Fakeeh, M., Yousef, A.I., de Chesse, R., Attoui, H., de Lamballerie, X. Emerging Infect. Dis. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Mint prevents shamma-induced carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch. Samman, M.A., Bowen, I.D., Taiba, K., Antonius, J., Hannan, M.A. Carcinogenesis (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Genetic homogeneity among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains from Saudi Arabia. Van Belkum, A., Vandenbergh, M., Kessie, G., Qadri, S.M., Lee, G., van den Braak, N., Verbrugh, H., al-Ahdal, M.N. Microb. Drug Resist. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Impact of antibiotic prophylaxis on wound infection after cesarean section in a situation of expected higher risk. Mah, M.W., Pyper, A.M., Oni, G.A., Memish, Z.A. American journal of infection control. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. A National Guard outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia infection and colonization secondary to intrinsic contamination of albuterol nebulization solution. Balkhy, H.H., Cunningham, G., Francis, C., Almuneef, M.A., Stevens, G., Akkad, N., Elgammal, A., Alassiri, A., Furukawa, E., Chew, F.K., Sobh, M., Daniel, D., Poff, G., Memish, Z.A. American journal of infection control. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Clonal relationships and variation in virulence among Escherichia coli strains of avian origin. White, D.G., Dho-Moulin, M., Wilson, R.A., Whittam, T.S. Microb. Pathog. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Multiple sclerosis in Saudi Arabia. Yaqub, B.A., Daif, A.K. Neurology (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Sanjad-Sakati and autosomal recessive Kenny-Caffey syndromes are allelic: evidence for an ancestral founder mutation and locus refinement. Diaz, G.A., Gelb, B.D., Ali, F., Sakati, N., Sanjad, S., Meyer, B.F., Kambouris, M. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Pre-eclampsia: maternal risk factors and perinatal outcome. Al-Mulhim, A.A., Abu-Heija, A., Al-Jamma, F., El-Harith, e.l.-.H.A. Fetal. Diagn. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Effects of fluoride level in drinking water, nutritional status, and socio-economic status on the prevalence of developmental defects of dental enamel in permanent teeth in Saudi 14-year-old boys. Rugg-Gunn, A.J., al-Mohammadi, S.M., Butler, T.J. Caries Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. Intestinal absorption in Saudi Arabia: an evaluation of the one hour blood xylose test. Montgomery, R.D., Atiyeh, M., Scales, W.R., Katirji, B., Clippinger, E. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1982) [Pubmed]
  21. Heavy metal concentrations in the breast milk of Saudi women. Al-Saleh, I., Shinwari, N., Mashhour, A. Biological trace element research. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. The prevalence of crowding, attrition, midline discrepancies and premature tooth loss in the primary dentition of children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Alamoudi, N. The Journal of clinical pediatric dentistry. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Erythrocyte pyruvate kinase deficiency in newborns of eastern Saudi Arabia. Abu-Melha, A.M., Ahmed, M.A., Knox-Macaulay, H., Al-Sowayan, S.A., el-Yahia, A. Acta Haematol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Thyroid function in haemodialysed patients of Gassim, Saudi Arabia: TRH stimulation. Soyannwo, M.A., Khandekar, S., Gadallah, M., Muraldhar, K., Abdelrahman, A., Khan, N., Singh, R. African journal of medicine and medical sciences. (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Birth-related fractures of long bones. Al-Habdan, I. Indian journal of pediatrics. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum cerebral malaria in a chloroquine-susceptible area. Alrajhi, A.A., Rahim, I., Akood, M., Hazmi, M. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents. Shibl, A.M., Tawfik, A.F., Khan, A.M., Qadri, S.M., Imambaccus, Y., Ramadan, M.A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Novel 5-flucytosine-resistant clade of Candida dubliniensis from Saudi Arabia and Egypt identified by Cd25 fingerprinting. Al Mosaid, A., Sullivan, D.J., Polacheck, I., Shaheen, F.A., Soliman, O., Al Hedaithy, S., Al Thawad, S., Kabadaya, M., Coleman, D.C. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Mechanisms of gentamicin resistance in gram-negative bacilli in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Moaz, A., Shannon, K., Phillips, I. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1989) [Pubmed]
  30. U.S. case report of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by Ramichloridium obovoideum (R. mackenziei): criteria for identification, therapy, and review of other known dematiaceous neurotropic taxa. Sutton, D.A., Slifkin, M., Yakulis, R., Rinaldi, M.G. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Glutathione reductase deficiency in association with sickle cell and thalassaemia genes in Saudi populations. el-Hazmi, M.A., Warsy, A.S. Hum. Hered. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in breast cancer patients from Saudi Arabia. Denic, S., Al-Gazali, L. Saudi medical journal. (2003) [Pubmed]
  33. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in breast cancer patients from Saudi Arabia. El-Harith, e.l.-.H.A., Abdel-Hadi, M.S., Steinmann, D., Dork, T. Saudi medical journal. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Preventive strategies to keep Saudi Arabia SARS-free. Madani, T.A. American journal of infection control. (2004) [Pubmed]
  35. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Saudi Arabia: a retrospective study of 166 cases treated with curative intent. Laramore, G.E., Clubb, B., Quick, C., Amer, M.H., Ali, M., Greer, W., Mahboubi, E., el-Senoussi, M., Schultz, H., el-Akkad, S.M. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (1988) [Pubmed]
  36. Immunologic hyporesponsiveness to serogroup C but not serogroup A following repeated meningococcal A/C polysaccharide vaccination in Saudi Arabia. Jokhdar, H., Borrow, R., Sultan, A., Adi, M., Riley, C., Fuller, E., Baxter, D. Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Aminoglycoside usage and monitoring in a Saudi Arabian teaching hospital: a ten-year laboratory audit. Adjepon-Yamoah, K.K., Al-Homrany, M., Bahar, Y., Ahmed, M.E. Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Climatic proteoglycan stromal keratopathy, a new corneal degeneration. Waring, G.O., Malaty, A., Grossniklaus, H., Kaj, H. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  39. Neonatal screening of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia. Muzaffer, M.A. Journal of medical screening. (2005) [Pubmed]
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