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Gene Review

STK38  -  serine/threonine kinase 38

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: NDR, NDR1, NDR1 protein kinase, Nuclear Dbf2-related kinase 1, Serine/threonine-protein kinase 38
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Disease relevance of STK38


Psychiatry related information on STK38

  • APOE genotypes were determined in 30 mild to moderate AD (83%) and mixed dementia (MIX, 17%), as well as in 11 nondemented first-degree relatives of AD (NDR), recruited from AD patient registry in Warsaw [4].

High impact information on STK38


Biological context of STK38

  • Previously, we demonstrated that the activity of NDR1 is controlled by phosphorylation of two regulatory residues, Ser-281 and Thr-444 [8].
  • Nuclear Dbf2-related (NDR) protein kinases are a family of AGC group kinases that are involved in the regulation of cell division and cell morphology [9].
  • Moreover, we found that NDR1 becomes activated through a direct interaction with EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding proteins of the S100 family [8].
  • NDR protein kinases are involved in the regulation of cell cycle progression and morphology [7].
  • A novel feature of NDR kinases is an insert within the catalytic domain between subdomains VII and VIII [10].

Anatomical context of STK38

  • However, they differ in expression pattern; mouse Ndr1 is expressed mainly in spleen, lung and thymus, whereas mouse Ndr2 shows highest expression in the gastrointestinal tract [9].
  • Significantly, the Ca(2+)-chelating agent BAPTA-AM suppressed the activity and phosphorylation of NDR1 on both Ser-281 and Thr-444, and specifically, these effects were reversed when we added the sarcoplasmic-endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase pump inhibitor thapsigargin [8].
  • Thus, to identify proteins that interact with NDR1 or NDR2, epitope-tagged kinases were immunoprecipitated from Jurkat T-cells [11].
  • We provide insight into a potential in vivo mechanism of NDR activation through rapid recruitment to the plasma membrane mediated by hMOBs [12].
  • Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity in erythrocytes was significantly lower in ND patients than in the NDR and F/CSS groups [13].

Associations of STK38 with chemical compounds

  • NDR1 (nuclear Dbf2-related) is a serine/threonine protein kinase belonging to subfamily of kinases implicated in the regulation of cell division and morphology [8].
  • NDR, a nuclear serine/threonine kinase, belongs to the subfamily of Dbf2 kinases that is critical to the morphology and proliferation of cells [14].
  • Structure of the Ca(2+)/S100B/NDR Kinase Peptide Complex: Insights into S100 Target Specificity and Activation of the Kinase [15].
  • The NDR shifts of HPAs obtained before and after pyridine adsorption were correlated with the acid strengths of the HPAs, suggesting that tunneling spectra measured by STM could serve to probe acid properties of HPAs [16].
  • NDR animals rendered diabetic with streptozotocin were more responsive to insulin [17].

Other interactions of STK38

  • We describe the cloning and characterization of the human and mouse NDR2, a second mammalian isoform of NDR protein kinase [9].
  • We showed previously that NDR is regulated by phosphorylation and by the Ca(2+)-binding protein, S100B [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of STK38


  1. HIV-1 incorporates and proteolytically processes human NDR1 and NDR2 serine-threonine kinases. Devroe, E., Silver, P.A., Engelman, A. Virology (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Area reduction in the anterior capsule opening in eyes of diabetes mellitus patients. Hayashi, H., Hayashi, K., Nakao, F., Hayashi, F. Journal of cataract and refractive surgery. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. A microarray-based gastric carcinoma prewarning system. Cui, D.X., Zhang, L., Yan, X.J., Zhang, L.X., Xu, J.R., Guo, Y.H., Jin, G.Q., Gomez, G., Li, D., Zhao, J.R., Han, F.C., Zhang, J., Hu, J.L., Fan, D.M., Gao, H.J. World J. Gastroenterol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. ApoE polymorphism in Polish patients with Alzheimer's disease. Lalowski, M.M., Czyzewski, K., Pfeffer, A., Barcikowska, M., Kwieciński, H. Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. NDR kinases regulate essential cell processes from yeast to humans. Hergovich, A., Stegert, M.R., Schmitz, D., Hemmings, B.A. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. A pathogen-inducible endogenous siRNA in plant immunity. Katiyar-Agarwal, S., Morgan, R., Dahlbeck, D., Borsani, O., Villegas, A., Zhu, J.K., Staskawicz, B.J., Jin, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of NDR protein kinase by hydrophobic motif phosphorylation mediated by the mammalian Ste20-like kinase MST3. Stegert, M.R., Hergovich, A., Tamaskovic, R., Bichsel, S.J., Hemmings, B.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Mechanism of Ca2+-mediated regulation of NDR protein kinase through autophosphorylation and phosphorylation by an upstream kinase. Tamaskovic, R., Bichsel, S.J., Rogniaux, H., Stegert, M.R., Hemmings, B.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of NDR2 protein kinase by multi-site phosphorylation and the S100B calcium-binding protein. Stegert, M.R., Tamaskovic, R., Bichsel, S.J., Hergovich, A., Hemmings, B.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Mechanism of activation of NDR (nuclear Dbf2-related) protein kinase by the hMOB1 protein. Bichsel, S.J., Tamaskovic, R., Stegert, M.R., Hemmings, B.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Human Mob proteins regulate the NDR1 and NDR2 serine-threonine kinases. Devroe, E., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Silver, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Human NDR kinases are rapidly activated by MOB proteins through recruitment to the plasma membrane and phosphorylation. Hergovich, A., Bichsel, S.J., Hemmings, B.A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Nutritional dwarfing: a growth abnormality associated with reduced erythrocyte Na+,K(+)-ATPase activity. Lifshitz, F., Friedman, S., Smith, M.M., Cervantes, C., Recker, B., O'Connor, M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  14. Structure of the Ca2+/S100B/NDR kinase peptide complex: insights into S100 target specificity and activation of the kinase. Bhattacharya, S., Large, E., Heizmann, C.W., Hemmings, B., Chazin, W.J. Biochemistry (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Structure of the Ca(2+)/S100B/NDR Kinase Peptide Complex: Insights into S100 Target Specificity and Activation of the Kinase. Bhattacharya, S., Large, E., Heizmann, C.W., Hemmings, B.A., Chazin, W.J. Biochemistry (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Nanoscale characterization of redox and acid properties of keggin-type heteropolyacids by scanning tunneling microscopy and tunneling spectroscopy: effect of heteroatom substitution. Song, I.K., Shnitser, R.B., Cowan, J.J., Hill, C.L., Barteau, M.A. Inorganic chemistry. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Studies of insulin resistance in the streptozotocin diabetic and BB rat: activation of low Km cAMP phosphodiesterase by insulin. Solomon, S.S., Deaton, J., Harris, G., Smoake, J.A. Am. J. Med. Sci. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Dynamic expression pattern of Nodal-related genes during left-right development in medaka. Soroldoni, D., Bajoghli, B., Aghaallaei, N., Czerny, T. Gene Expr. Patterns (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Assessing progression and efficacy of treatment for diabetic retinopathy following the proliferative pathway to blindness: implication for diabetic retinopathy screening in Taiwan. Liu, W.J., Lee, L.T., Yen, M.F., Tung, T.H., Williams, R., Duffy, S.W., Chen, T.H. Diabet. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Elevated serum levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in NIDDM patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Yoshizawa, M., Nagai, Y., Ohsawa, K., Ohta, M., Yamashita, H., Hisada, A., Miyamoto, I., Miura, K., Takamura, T., Kobayashi, K. Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. (1998) [Pubmed]
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