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Gene Review

RPS2  -  ribosomal protein S2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 40S ribosomal protein S2, 40S ribosomal protein S4, LLREP3, Protein LLRep3, RPS4, ...
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Disease relevance of RPS2

  • Using Western and Northern blot analyses, we found that the levels of RPS2 protein and its corresponding mRNA were higher in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma, in mouse livers after one-third partial hepatectomy, and in serum-starved cultured hepatocytes following serum treatment [1].
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first demonstration of growth factor-regulated expression, localization, and activity of the S4 subunit of the 26S proteasome in human breast cancer cells [2].
  • Several PT analogs with mutations in the S2, S3, or S4 subunit showed reduced in vitro toxicity, as measured in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell clustering assay [3].
  • The S2, S3, and S4 subunit genes of pertussis toxin (PT) from Bordetella pertussis were subjected to site-directed mutagenesis, and the resultant PT analogs were assayed for altered biological properties [3].
  • Reovirus S4 RNA codes for the dsRNA-binding polypeptide sigma 3, a major virion outer capsid component that also has translational effects in both infected and transfected mammalian cells [4].

Psychiatry related information on RPS2

  • 1. Inter (INTERr) and intrahemispheric (INTRAr) EEG correlation were assessed in 8 young male adults during wakefulness (W) with eyes closed before going to sleep, and during stage 2 (S2), stage 4 (S4) and paradoxical sleep (PS) of the first three sleep cycles during the second night spent at the laboratory [5].
  • Comparing wakefulness with S4 sleep: in the normal subjects during sleep, f and PtcCO2 were increased (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively), TE was shortened (p less than 0.01), and ventilation (VI) was unchanged [6].

High impact information on RPS2

  • We have isolated two genes on the human sex chromosomes, one on the Y and one on the X, that appear to encode isoforms of ribosomal protein S4 [7].
  • A point mutation greatly destabilizes the "fully retracted" state of S4 transmembrane translocation, causing instead an intermediate state to predominate at resting potentials [8].
  • This siRNA contributes to RPS2-mediated race-specific disease resistance by repressing PPRL, a putative negative regulator of the RPS2 resistance pathway [9].
  • Evolution of plastid gene rps2 in a lineage of hemiparasitic and holoparasitic plants: many losses of photosynthesis and complex patterns of rate variation [10].
  • In contrast, the translational gene rps2 is retained in all plants investigated but has experienced rate accelerations in several hemi- as well as holoparasitic lineages, suggesting that there may be substantial molecular evolutionary changes to the plastid genome of parasites before the loss of photosynthesis [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of RPS2

  • In 71 non-A, non-B hepatitis patients with chronic liver disease, 70 (98.5%) were positive by S29-1/S4 ELISA as well as by a second-generation test (Abbott II) [11].

Biological context of RPS2


Anatomical context of RPS2

  • Pharmacognostical studies of cistanchis herba (III) phylogenetic relationship of the cistanche plants based on plastid rps2 gene and rpl16-rpl14 intergenic spacer sequences [15].
  • Identification of a 40S ribosomal protein S4-derived H-Y epitope able to elicit a lymphoblast-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response [16].
  • PTP-S4/TC48 protein tyrosine phosphatase is localized in the nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes [17].
  • To investigate the role of PTP-S4 in cell growth, adhesion, and transformation, normal and a catalytically inactive mutant form of this phosphatase were expressed in polyoma virus-transformed F111 fibroblast cell line, PyF [17].
  • Three synthetic segments of the Shaker K+ channel, comprising the hydrophobic S2, S3, and S4 sequences, were used, and their secondary structure, their interactions with, and orientation within phospholipid membranes were examined [18].

Associations of RPS2 with chemical compounds

  • Mutations of heparan sulfate attachment sites on S4 construct abolished syndecan-4-dependent augmentation of bFGF responses [19].
  • The location and stability of helical secondary structure in a fragment comprising an extended sequence of the S4 transmembrane segment of the Shaker potassium channel was determined in methanol, and when bound to vesicles composed of egg phosphatidylcholine: egg phosphatidylglycerol (4:1; mol:mol) in water [20].
  • The peptide in trifluoroethanol adopts an alpha-helical conformation which is in good agreement with the results of a recent 2D NMR study on the structure of a S4 peptide corresponding to the rat brain sodium channel [(1989) FEBS Lett. 257, 113-117] [21].
  • The effect of 2-aminopurine (2AP), an inhibitor of the RNA-dependent P1/eIF-2 protein kinase, on the expression of the reovirus serotype 1 Lang strain S1 and S4 genes in transfected simian COS cells was examined [22].
  • In this report we compare the effects of incubation on cultured porcine endothelial cells at 10 degrees C for 1 h with the CPAs glycerol, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO), ethanediol (EG), and propane-1,2-diol (PG) in the vehicle solutions RPS-2 (high potassium, high glucose) and HP-5NP (low potassium, high sodium), both with and without added colloids [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RPS2

  • Comparative sequence analysis of the reovirus S4 genes from 13 serotype 1 and serotype 3 field isolates [24].
  • Coimmunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence, and ATPase activity assays suggested that HRG also induced S4 activity and formation of a functional proteasome complex [2].
  • PCR amplification was previously used to identify a cluster of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) on soybean linkage group J. Resistance to powdery mildew (Rmd-c), Phytophthora stem and root rot (Rps2), and an ineffective nodulation gene (Rj2) map within this cluster [25].
  • Structural studies on the S4 peptide were conducted using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy [21].
  • Northern blot hybridization showed that a 32P-labeled cDNA insert S4-49 from ARV S4 RNA cross-hybridized with the corresponding RNA segments of all seven strains of ARV tested [26].


  1. Increased expression of ribosomal protein S2 in liver tumors, posthepactomized livers, and proliferating hepatocytes in vitro. Kowalczyk, P., Woszczyński, M., Ostrowski, J. Acta Biochim. Pol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. Growth factor regulation of a 26S proteasomal subunit in breast cancer. Barnes, C.J., Li, F., Talukder, A.H., Kumar, R. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of pertussis toxin analogs containing mutations in B-oligomer subunits. Loosmore, S., Zealey, G., Cockle, S., Boux, H., Chong, P., Yacoob, R., Klein, M. Infect. Immun. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Translational effects and sequence comparisons of the three serotypes of the reovirus S4 gene. Seliger, L.S., Giantini, M., Shatkin, A.J. Virology (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Inter and intrahemispheric EEG correlation as a function of sleep cycles. Corsi-Cabrera, M., Guevara, M.A., Arce, C., Ramos, J. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Does the abnormal pattern of breathing in patients with interstitial lung disease persist in deep, non-rapid eye movement sleep? Shea, S.A., Winning, A.J., McKenzie, E., Guz, A. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Homologous ribosomal protein genes on the human X and Y chromosomes: escape from X inactivation and possible implications for Turner syndrome. Fisher, E.M., Beer-Romero, P., Brown, L.G., Ridley, A., McNeil, J.A., Lawrence, J.B., Willard, H.F., Bieber, F.R., Page, D.C. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Three transmembrane conformations and sequence-dependent displacement of the S4 domain in shaker K+ channel gating. Baker, O.S., Larsson, H.P., Mannuzzu, L.M., Isacoff, E.Y. Neuron (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. A pathogen-inducible endogenous siRNA in plant immunity. Katiyar-Agarwal, S., Morgan, R., Dahlbeck, D., Borsani, O., Villegas, A., Zhu, J.K., Staskawicz, B.J., Jin, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Evolution of plastid gene rps2 in a lineage of hemiparasitic and holoparasitic plants: many losses of photosynthesis and complex patterns of rate variation. dePamphilis, C.W., Young, N.D., Wolfe, A.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. A sensitive serodiagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with two non-fused peptides: comparison of antibody responses detected with a newly developed assay and a commercial second-generation test. Sato, A., Ida, N., Ishikawa, M., Tanahashi, K., Nakamura, H., Sho, Y., Arima, T., Kunitomo, T. Microbiol. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Identification and analysis of over 2000 ribosomal protein pseudogenes in the human genome. Zhang, Z., Harrison, P., Gerstein, M. Genome Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. A gene coding for an RPS2 protein is present in the mitochondrial genome of several cereals, but not in dicotyledons. Vaïtilingom, M., Stupar, M., Grienenberger, J.M., Gualberto, J.M. Mol. Gen. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Human cDNA sequence homologous to the mouse LLRep3 gene family. Slynn, G., Jenner, D., Potts, W., Elvin, P., Morten, J.E., Markham, A.F. Nucleic Acids Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  15. Pharmacognostical studies of cistanchis herba (III) phylogenetic relationship of the cistanche plants based on plastid rps2 gene and rpl16-rpl14 intergenic spacer sequences. Tomari, N., Ishizuka, Y., Moriya, A., Kojima, S., Deyama, T., Mizukami, H., Tu, P. Biol. Pharm. Bull. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of a 40S ribosomal protein S4-derived H-Y epitope able to elicit a lymphoblast-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response. Ivanov, R., Aarts, T., Hol, S., Doornenbal, A., Hagenbeek, A., Petersen, E., Ebeling, S. Clin. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  17. Inhibition of anchorage-independent cell growth, adhesion, and cyclin D1 gene expression by a dominant negative mutant of a tyrosine phosphatase. Mitra, S.K., Swarup, G. Exp. Cell Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Coassembly of synthetic segments of shaker K+ channel within phospholipid membranes. Peled-Zehavi, H., Arkin, I.T., Engelman, D.M., Shai, Y. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. The role of syndecan cytoplasmic domain in basic fibroblast growth factor-dependent signal transduction. Volk, R., Schwartz, J.J., Li, J., Rosenberg, R.D., Simons, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. Intrinsic helical propensities and stable secondary structure in a membrane-bound fragment (S4) of the shaker potassium channel. Halsall, A., Dempsey, C.E. J. Mol. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  21. The conformational analysis of a synthetic S4 peptide corresponding to a voltage-gated potassium ion channel protein. Haris, P.I., Ramesh, B., Brazier, S., Chapman, D. FEBS Lett. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. Biosynthesis of reovirus-specified polypeptides. 2-aminopurine increases the efficiency of translation of reovirus s1 mRNA but not s4 mRNA in transfected cells. Samuel, C.E., Brody, M.S. Virology (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of four cryoprotectants in combination with two vehicle solutions on cultured vascular endothelial cells. Pollock, G.A., Hamlyn, L., Maguire, S.H., Stewart-Richardson, P.A., Hardie, I.R. Cryobiology (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Comparative sequence analysis of the reovirus S4 genes from 13 serotype 1 and serotype 3 field isolates. Kedl, R., Schmechel, S., Schiff, L. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Organization, expression and evolution of a disease resistance gene cluster in soybean. Graham, M.A., Marek, L.F., Shoemaker, R.C. Genetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. Cloning and nucleotide sequencing of the S4 genome segment of avian reovirus S1133. Chiu, C.J., Lee, L.H. Arch. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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