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Chemical Compound Review

hypoxanthine     3,7-dihydropurin-6-one

Synonyms: Sarcine, Sarkine, Sarkin, PubChem9283, Purine-6-ol, ...
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Disease relevance of hypoxanthine


Psychiatry related information on hypoxanthine

  • The parallelisms between ITP pyrophosphohydrolase and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase deficiencies, both characterized by the lack of availability of IMP, and correlated to behavioral disorders, suggest that irregularities of hypoxanthine nucleotides may be implicated in abnormal mental processes [7].
  • In the cerebrospinal fluid of 38 patients with major depressive disorders the purine metabolites hypoxanthine and xanthine were positively correlated to the monoamine metabolites HVA and 5HIAA (p less than 0.0001) [8].
  • The observation that certain isolated depressive symptoms appear to relate to hypoxanthine/xanthine in CSF is consistent with the hypothesis of a central role of purines in behaviour [8].
  • Keeping the fish at 0 to 2 degrees C can prolong the storage prior to spoilage by 10 days compared with those kept at 5 degrees C. These results obtained through organoleptic tests are corroborated by both the chemical (hypoxanthine and total volatile basic nitrogen) and to some extent by the physical (cosmos) tests [9].
  • Relation between changes in serum hypoxanthine levels by exercise and daily physical activity in the elderly [10].

High impact information on hypoxanthine

  • In the other, analysis of a restriction-fragment-length polymorphism in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene suggested the presence of a dominant clone in the granulocytes sampled 36 days after transplantation [11].
  • With bed rest, the plasma hypoxanthine level returned to normal within a few hours, and the plasma urate concentration decreased from 18.6 to 10.6 mg per deciliter (1106 to 630 mumol per liter) within 48 hours [12].
  • A transformed BHK cell lacking hypoxanthine guanosine phosphoribosyl tranferase, which was used an an indicator, was found to incorporate 3H-hypoxanthine when in prolonged (20 hr) or brief (1 hr) contact with donor 3T3 cells, whether the latter were in a quiescent layer of in the region of stimulation at the edge of a wound [13].
  • Within one hour of the addition of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) or hypoxanthine (Hyp), the levels of c-myc transcripts fall dramatically and remain virtually undetectable for the next few hours [14].
  • In a study of the relation between chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis, C3H mouse fibroblasts of the 10T 1/2 clone 8 line (10T 1/2 cells) were exposed to human neutrophils stimulated to synthesize reactive oxygen intermediates or to a cell-free enzymatic system generating superoxide (xanthine oxidase plus hypoxanthine) [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of hypoxanthine


Biological context of hypoxanthine


Anatomical context of hypoxanthine


Associations of hypoxanthine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of hypoxanthine

  • These hybrids have been extensively characterized by using the allozymes hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (encoded by the Hprt locus) and alpha-galactosidase (Ags) and a series of 11 X-chromosome-specific DNA probes whose localization had been previously established by linkage studies [34].
  • These viruses also contained a human hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene as a selectable marker and a mouse metallothionein promoter (MMP) sequence just upstream from the PNP or ADA genes [35].
  • ECs under strain or pretreated with either H2O2 or xanthine oxidase/hypoxanthine induced MCP-1 expression [36].
  • The methylation pattern of the FMR1 5' CpG island in affected patients as determined by genomic sequencing is remarkably similar to that seen for the X-linked human phosphoglycerate kinase and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene 5' CpG islands on the inactive human X chromosome.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[37]
  • In contrast, recombinant hENT1 and rENT1 mediated negligible oocyte fluxes of hypoxanthine relative to hENT2 and rENT2 [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of hypoxanthine


  1. Production of a model for Lesch-Nyhan syndrome in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient mice. Wu, C.L., Melton, D.W. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Monoclonality and abnormal parathyroid hormone genes in parathyroid adenomas. Arnold, A., Staunton, C.E., Kim, H.G., Gaz, R.D., Kronenberg, H.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Oxygen free radicals in ischemic acute renal failure in the rat. Paller, M.S., Hoidal, J.R., Ferris, T.F. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity in intact fibroblasts from patients with X-linked hyperuricemia. Holland, M.J., DiLorenzo, A.M., Dancis, J., Balis, M.E., Yü, T.F., Cox, R.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. Pseudomonas and neutrophil products modify transferrin and lactoferrin to create conditions that favor hydroxyl radical formation. Britigan, B.E., Edeker, B.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Brain hypoxanthine concentration correlates to lactate/pyruvate ratio but not intracranial pressure in patients with acute liver failure. Bjerring, P.N., Hauerberg, J., Jørgensen, L., Frederiksen, H.J., Tofteng, F., Hansen, B.A., Larsen, F.S. J. Hepatol. (2010) [Pubmed]
  7. Erythrocyte ITP pyrophosphohydrolase deficiency in a psychiatric population. Vanderheiden, B.S., Zarate-Moyano, C. Biol. Psychiatry (1976) [Pubmed]
  8. Purine and monoamine metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid: parallel purinergic and monoaminergic activation in depressive illness? Niklasson, F., Agren, H., Hällgren, R. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Effects of storage temperature and preservative treatment on shelf life of the pond-raised freshwater fish, silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus). Gelman, A., Glatman, L., Drabkin, V., Harpaz, S. J. Food Prot. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Relation between changes in serum hypoxanthine levels by exercise and daily physical activity in the elderly. Saiki, S., Sato, T., Hiwatari, M., Harada, T., Oouchi, M., Kamimoto, M. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Clonal hematopoiesis demonstrated by X-linked DNA polymorphisms after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Turhan, A.G., Humphries, R.K., Phillips, G.L., Eaves, A.C., Eaves, C.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  12. Myogenic hyperuricemia. A common pathophysiologic feature of glycogenosis types III, V, and VII. Mineo, I., Kono, N., Hara, N., Shimizu, T., Yamada, Y., Kawachi, M., Kiyokawa, H., Wang, Y.L., Tarui, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. The effects of topoinhibition and cytochalasin B on metabolic cooperation. Stoker, M. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  14. Deregulated expression of c-myc by murine erythroleukaemia cells prevents differentiation. Prochownik, E.V., Kukowska, J. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Phagocytes as carcinogens: malignant transformation produced by human neutrophils. Weitzman, S.A., Weitberg, A.B., Clark, E.P., Stossel, T.P. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: low dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity and diminished sympathetic response to stress and posture. Lake, C.R., Ziegler, M.G. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  17. Cell cycle and growth stage-dependent changes in the transport of nucleosides, hypoxanthine, choline, and deoxyglucose in cultured Novikoff rat hepatoma cells. Plagemenn, P.G., Richey, D.P., Zylka, J.M., Erbe, J. J. Cell Biol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. Preservation of high-energy phosphates by verapamil in reperfused myocardium. Lange, R., Ingwall, J., Hale, S.L., Alker, K.J., Braunwald, E., Kloner, R.A. Circulation (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Cloned cDNA sequences of the hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene from a mouse neuroblastoma cell line found to have amplified genomic sequences. Brennand, J., Chinault, A.C., Konecki, D.S., Melton, D.W., Caskey, C.T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Myocardial reperfusion injury. Role of myocardial hypoxanthine and xanthine in free radical-mediated reperfusion injury. Abd-Elfattah, A.S., Jessen, M.E., Lekven, J., Doherty, N.E., Brunsting, L.A., Wechsler, A.S. Circulation (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Introduction of human chromosome 11 via microcell transfer controls tumorigenic expression of HeLa cells. Saxon, P.J., Srivatsan, E.S., Stanbridge, E.J. EMBO J. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Inactive X chromosome DNA does not function in DNA-mediated cell transformation for the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene. Liskay, R.M., Evans, R.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  23. Identification of inosine and hypoxanthine as endogenous ligands for the brain benzodiazepine-binding sites. Asano, T., Spector, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  24. Isolation of mammalian cell mutants deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity: linkage to hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase. Rosenstraus, M., Chasin, L.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Growth of human diploid fibroblasts in the absence of glucose utilization. Zielke, H.R., Ozand, P.T., Tildon, J.T., Sevdalian, D.A., Cornblath, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  26. Monoamine oxidase activity decreased in cells lacking hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase activity. Breakefield, X.O., Castiglione, C.M., Edelstein, S.B. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  27. Human T cell hybridomas secreting factors for IgA-specific help, polyclonal B cell activation, and B cell proliferation. Mayer, L., Fu, S.M., Kunkel, H.G. J. Exp. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Oxypurine cycle in human erythrocytes regulated by pH, inorganic phosphate, and oxygen. Berman, P.A., Black, D.A., Human, L., Harley, E.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Antitumor immunity induced by hybrid murine tumor cells: requirements for optimal immunization. McCune, C.S., O'Donnell, R.W., Horan, P.K., Budd, H.S., Spennacchio, J.L., Chuang, C., Henshaw, E.C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1982) [Pubmed]
  30. Purine metabolism in myeloid precursor cells during maturation. Studies with the HL-60 cell line. Lucas, D.L., Webster, H.K., Wright, D.G. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthesis in cultured human cells. Benke, P.J., Dittmar, D. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  32. Purine salvage networks in Giardia lamblia. Wang, C.C., Aldritt, S. J. Exp. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  33. Proposed explanation for S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase deficiency in purine nucleoside phosphorylase and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient patients. Hershfield, M.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  34. Characterization of a panel of somatic cell hybrids for regional mapping of the mouse X chromosome. Avner, P., Arnaud, D., Amar, L., Cambrou, J., Winking, H., Russell, L.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  35. Human purine nucleoside phosphorylase and adenosine deaminase: gene transfer into cultured cells and murine hematopoietic stem cells by using recombinant amphotropic retroviruses. McIvor, R.S., Johnson, M.J., Miller, A.D., Pitts, S., Williams, S.R., Valerio, D., Martin, D.W., Verma, I.M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  36. Cyclic strain-induced monocyte chemotactic protein-1 gene expression in endothelial cells involves reactive oxygen species activation of activator protein 1. Wung, B.S., Cheng, J.J., Hsieh, H.J., Shyy, Y.J., Wang, D.L. Circ. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. High resolution methylation analysis of the FMR1 gene trinucleotide repeat region in fragile X syndrome. Hornstra, I.K., Nelson, D.L., Warren, S.T., Yang, T.P. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  38. Functional and molecular characterization of nucleobase transport by recombinant human and rat equilibrative nucleoside transporters 1 and 2. Chimeric constructs reveal a role for the ENT2 helix 5-6 region in nucleobase translocation. Yao, S.Y., Ng, A.M., Vickers, M.F., Sundaram, M., Cass, C.E., Baldwin, S.A., Young, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  39. IgA class switch in I alpha exon-deficient mice. Role of germline transcription in class switch recombination. Harriman, G.R., Bradley, A., Das, S., Rogers-Fani, P., Davis, A.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. Circulating xanthine oxidase and neutrophil activation during human liver transplantation. Pesonen, E.J., Linder, N., Raivio, K.O., Sarnesto, A., Lapatto, R., Höckerstedt, K., Mäkisalo, H., Andersson, S. Gastroenterology (1998) [Pubmed]
  41. Preimplantation diagnosis of deficiency of hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase in a mouse model for Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Monk, M., Handyside, A., Hardy, K., Whittingham, D. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  42. Dipyridamole inhibits reversion by thymidine of methotrexate effect and increases drug uptake in Sarcoma 180 cells. Cabral, S., Leis, S., Bover, L., Nembrot, M., Mordoh, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
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