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Gene Review

Foxh1  -  forkhead box H1

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Fast-1, Fast-2, Fast1, Fast2, Forkhead activin signal transducer 1, ...
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Disease relevance of Foxh1

  • The edema volume was quantified using SPOT software on Luxol Fast Blue and Cresyl violet-stained cross-sections 24 h, 3, and 7 days post surgery [1].
  • The C5C4 MAb was used in a Fast Dot-ELISA for rapid and simple diagnosis of human schistosomiasis [2].

Psychiatry related information on Foxh1

  • The other may be used to measure enzyme reaction rates in cells in situ and employs conditions suitable for initial velocity kinetics, namely naphthol-ASBI phosphate as substrate, post coupling to Fast Garnet, and a 2-minute reaction time [3].

High impact information on Foxh1

  • Immunology: Fast and feel good [4]?
  • FoxH1 (Fast) functions to specify the anterior primitive streak in the mouse [5].
  • Skeletal muscles can be assigned to one of two distinct classes of muscles, termed "Fast Synapsing" (FaSyn) and "Delayed Synapsing" (DeSyn) muscles, which differ significantly with respect to the initial focal clustering of postsynaptic AChRs, the timing of presynaptic maturation, and the maintenance of NMJs in young adult mice [6].
  • We show both are expressed in the early mouse embryo from the blastocyst stage onwards and mediate Foxh1-dependent activation of the Nodal autoregulatory enhancer in vitro [7].
  • The role of Foxh1 in left-right (LR) patterning was examined with mutant mice that lack this protein in lateral plate mesoderm (LPM) [8].

Biological context of Foxh1

  • The Foxh1-dependent autoregulatory enhancer controls the level of Nodal signals in the mouse embryo [9].
  • Here we demonstrate that Foxh1-/- mutant mouse embryos form a primitive heart tube, but fail to form OFT and RV and display loss of outer curvature markers of the future working myocardium, similar to the phenotype of Mef2c-/- mutant hearts [10].
  • We propose that mouse Fast1, like Xenopus FAST-1, mediates TGF beta superfamily signals specifying developmental fate during early embryogenesis [11].
  • Rat factor D has been purified to homogeneity (10,559-fold) from serum by chromatography on CM-Sepharose Fast Flow, phenyl-Sepharose CL-4B and Mono S and has been shown to resemble its human and mouse counterparts both in substrate specificity and in its susceptibility to inhibition by the organophosphorous inhibitor di-isopropylfluorophosphate [12].

Anatomical context of Foxh1

  • Myelin clearance was confirmed at 7 days using Luxol Fast Blue staining and on toluidine blue-stained semi-thin sections [13].
  • Similarly, cutaneous sensory neurons were identified in L3 and L4 DRG, following Fast Blue injection into the saphenous nerve innervating the skin [14].
  • The fluorescent retrograde tracer Fast Blue was injected into the neostriatum one (group A) or five weeks (group B) following exposure to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine [15].
  • Wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase and Fast Blue were used as retrograde tracers to examine the distribution of coeruleohippocampal and coeruleospinal somata within the locus coeruleus of normal and tottering mutant mice [16].
  • Cell bodies of bladder pelvic afferents were identified in L6 and S1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), following Fast Blue injection into the muscle wall of the urinary bladder [14].

Associations of Foxh1 with chemical compounds

  • A calcium-unresponsive, phorbol ester/phospholipid-activated protein kinase was purified to apparent homogeneity from a Triton X-100 extract of an EGTA/EDTA-preextracted particulate fraction of porcine spleen by chromatography on S-Sepharose Fast Flow, phenyl-Sepharose Fast Flow, protamine-agarose, and Superdex 200 [17].
  • Mutant Analysis of the Shal (Kv4) Voltage-gated Fast Transient K+ Channel in Caenorhabditis elegans [18].
  • EEG power analysis using Fast Fourier Transformation confirmed that pontine neostigmine caused EEG activation [19].
  • This factor, designated suppressive factor 1 (SF1), was isolated from the supernatant of sonicated whole bacteria and purified by Q-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography, DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography, hydroxyapatite high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Protein Pack 300 & 125 gel filtration HPLC [20].
  • There was no variation in the number and distribution of Fast Blue-labelled perikarya located in the centre median-parafascicular complex, which are insensitive to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine [15].

Regulatory relationships of Foxh1

  • Whereas Foxh1 is commonly described as a transcriptional activator, we observed that Foxh1-null embryos exhibit expanded and enhanced Mixl1 expression during gastrulation, indicating that Foxh1 negatively regulates expression of Mixl1 during early mouse embryogenesis [21].

Other interactions of Foxh1

  • The transcription factor Foxh1 mediates Nodal signaling [8].
  • Thus, Foxh1 and Nkx2-5 functionally interact and are essential for development of the AHF and its derivatives, the RV and OFT, in response to TGFbeta-like signals [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Foxh1

  • The appropriate separation conditions were developed with an analytical-size Mono Q anion-exchange column linked to an automated Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography system [22].
  • Populations of postganglionic sympathetic neurons projecting to cranial targets from the superior cervical ganglia of mice were identified by retrograde axonal tracing with Fast blue combined with double-labelling immunofluorescence to detect immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase and neuropeptide Y [23].
  • We examined this hypothesis by comparing operant self-administration of ethanol in mice selectively bred for either high (Fast) or low (Slow) locomotor stimulation response to ethanol [24].
  • In this study, the development of corpus callosum, visual cortex, and subcortical pathways has been observed in C57BL/6 mice with various methods, such as DiI labeling in vitro and in vivo, Dil and DiA in vitro double labeling, immunocytochemistry, and in vivo BrdU and Fast Blue labeling [25].
  • Lightning Fast protein gel staining is compatible with subsequent peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-MS and Edman-based sequencing chemistry [26].


  1. The role of endogenous versus exogenous tPA on edema formation in murine ICH. Thiex, R., Mayfrank, L., Rohde, V., Gilsbach, J.M., Tsirka, S.A. Exp. Neurol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Immunochemical characterization and diagnostic potential of a 63-kilodalton Schistosoma antigen. Attallah, A.M., Yones, E., Ismail, H., El Masry, S.A., Tabll, A., Elenein, A.A., El Ghawalby, N.A. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. The effect of tartrate on bone cell acid phosphatase activity: a quantitative cytochemical study. Webber, D., Braidman, I.P., Robertson, W.R., Anderson, D.C. J. Bone Miner. Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Immunology: Fast and feel good? Kuchroo, V.K., Nicholson, L.B. Nature (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. FoxH1 (Fast) functions to specify the anterior primitive streak in the mouse. Hoodless, P.A., Pye, M., Chazaud, C., Labbé, E., Attisano, L., Rossant, J., Wrana, J.L. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. An intrinsic distinction in neuromuscular junction assembly and maintenance in different skeletal muscles. Pun, S., Sigrist, M., Santos, A.F., Ruegg, M.A., Sanes, J.R., Jessell, T.M., Arber, S., Caroni, P. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Combinatorial activities of Smad2 and Smad3 regulate mesoderm formation and patterning in the mouse embryo. Dunn, N.R., Vincent, S.D., Oxburgh, L., Robertson, E.J., Bikoff, E.K. Development (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Nodal signaling induces the midline barrier by activating Nodal expression in the lateral plate. Yamamoto, M., Mine, N., Mochida, K., Sakai, Y., Saijoh, Y., Meno, C., Hamada, H. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. The Foxh1-dependent autoregulatory enhancer controls the level of Nodal signals in the mouse embryo. Norris, D.P., Brennan, J., Bikoff, E.K., Robertson, E.J. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Foxh1 is essential for development of the anterior heart field. von Both, I., Silvestri, C., Erdemir, T., Lickert, H., Walls, J.R., Henkelman, R.M., Rossant, J., Harvey, R.P., Attisano, L., Wrana, J.L. Dev. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. A mouse homologue of FAST-1 transduces TGF beta superfamily signals and is expressed during early embryogenesis. Weisberg, E., Winnier, G.E., Chen, X., Farnsworth, C.L., Hogan, B.L., Whitman, M. Mech. Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Purification and partial characterization of rat factor D. Baker, B.C., Campbell, C.J., Grinham, C.J., Turcatti, G. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  13. Systemic injections of lipopolysaccharide accelerates myelin phagocytosis during Wallerian degeneration in the injured mouse spinal cord. Vallières, N., Berard, J.L., David, S., Lacroix, S. Glia (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Bladder and cutaneous sensory neurons of the rat express different functional P2X receptors. Zhong, Y., Banning, A.S., Cockayne, D.A., Ford, A.P., Burnstock, G., Mcmahon, S.B. Neuroscience (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Functional impairment of nigrostriatal neurons progresses following withdrawal of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. Albanese, A., Gregori, B., Carretta, D., Tonali, P. Neuroscience (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. The distribution of hippocampal and spinal projecting cells in the locus coeruleus of tottering mice. Stanfield, B.B. Neuroscience (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Purification and characterization of a calcium-unresponsive, phorbol ester/phospholipid-activated protein kinase from porcine spleen. Leibersperger, H., Gschwendt, M., Marks, F. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Mutant Analysis of the Shal (Kv4) Voltage-gated Fast Transient K+ Channel in Caenorhabditis elegans. Fawcett, G.L., Santi, C.M., Butler, A., Harris, T., Covarrubias, M., Salkoff, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Microinjection of neostigmine into the pontine reticular formation of C57BL/6J mouse enhances rapid eye movement sleep and depresses breathing. Lydic, R., Douglas, C.L., Baghdoyan, H.A. Sleep. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Immunosuppressive factor from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans down regulates cytokine production. Kurita-Ochiai, T., Ochiai, K. Infect. Immun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Foxh1 recruits Gsc to negatively regulate Mixl1 expression during early mouse development. Izzi, L., Silvestri, C., von Both, I., Labbé, E., Zakin, L., Wrana, J.L., Attisano, L. EMBO J. (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Analytical- and preparative-scale separation of molecular variants of alpha-fetoprotein by anion-exchange chromatography on Monobead resins. Van Oers, N.S., Boismenu, R., Cohen, B.L., Murgita, R.A. J. Chromatogr. (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Vasomotor, pilomotor and secretomotor neurons distinguished by size and neuropeptide content in superior cervical ganglia of mice. Gibbins, I.L. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Ethanol self-administration is genetically independent of locomotor stimulation in fast and slow mice. Sanchez, F.P., Dickenson, L., George, F.R. Alcohol (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. The role of pioneer neurons in the development of mouse visual cortex and corpus callosum. Deng, J., Elberger, A.J. Anat. Embryol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  26. A fluorescent natural product for ultra sensitive detection of proteins in one-dimensional and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Mackintosh, J.A., Choi, H.Y., Bae, S.H., Veal, D.A., Bell, P.J., Ferrari, B.C., Van Dyk, D.D., Verrills, N.M., Paik, Y.K., Karuso, P. Proteomics (2003) [Pubmed]
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