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N  -  nucleocapsid protein

Infectious bronchitis virus

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Disease relevance of N


High impact information on N

  • However, export of N protein from the nucleus/nucleolus was not inhibited by leptomycin B treatment, indicating that N protein nuclear export is independent of the CRM1-mediated export pathway [4].
  • Conserved among all coronaviruses are four structural proteins: the matrix (M), small envelope (E), and spike (S) proteins that are embedded in the viral membrane and the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N), which exists in a ribonucleoprotein complex in the lumen [5].
  • The N protein is a highly immunogenic phosphoprotein also implicated in viral genome replication and in modulating cell signaling pathways [6].
  • The carboxyl-terminal 120-residue polypeptide of infectious bronchitis virus nucleocapsid induces cytotoxic T lymphocytes and protects chickens from acute infection [7].
  • Effector cells for CTL assays were collected from chickens infected with the Gray strain of IBV or inoculated with a DNA plasmid encoding nucleocapsid proteins [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of N


Biological context of N

  • The genome position and size of this predicted polypeptide are consistent with it being the gene for the nucleocapsid protein [12].
  • Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequences of S, M, or N protein demonstrated that TCoV was clustered within the same genomic lineage as the IBV strains while all the other mammalian coronaviruses were grouped into separate clusters corresponding to antigenic groups I or II [13].
  • N-terminal sequencing of [3H]leucine-labelled IBV-Beaudette membrane (M) polypeptide showed leucine residues at positions 8, 16 and 22 from the N-terminus; these results confirm the open reading frame identified by M.E.G. Boursnell et al [14].
  • The binding site in the amino region of N was either not present or only partially present in the first 91 residues because no interaction with RNA was observed with the polypeptide incorporating these residues [8].
  • The 3' untranslated region after the N gene of one strain was partially deleted after attenuation, and might be correlated with virulence [15].

Anatomical context of N


Associations of N with chemical compounds

  • One MAb (MAb 5) was directed against an epitope on the S1 subunit of the peplomer, another (MAb 2) against an epitope on the M glycoprotein and eight MAbs (MAbs 1, 7, 9, 16, 24, 26, 27 and 51) were directed against seven non-overlapping epitopes on the N protein [21].
  • In order to identify domains in the N protein that bind to RNA, the whole protein (409 amino acids) and six overlapping fragments were expressed as fusion polypeptides with six histidine-tags [8].
  • The residues identified and their positions relative to the N-terminus of S2 were: serine, 13; valine, 6, 12; leucine, none in the first 20 residues; isoleucine, 2, 19 [14].
  • To locate the N-terminus of S2 we have performed partial amino acid sequencing on S2 from IBV-Beaudette labelled with [3H]serine and from the related strain labelled with [3H]valine, leucine and isoleucine [14].
  • In contrast, mutation of amino acid Gln-74 to an alanine, which does not affect the binding activity of the N-terminal domain, showed minimal, if any, detrimental effect on the infectivity of IBV [17].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of N


  1. The nucleocapsid protein of coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus: crystal structure of its N-terminal domain and multimerization properties. Fan, H., Ooi, A., Tan, Y.W., Wang, S., Fang, S., Liu, D.X., Lescar, J. Structure (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Delineation and modelling of a nucleolar retention signal in the coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. Reed, M.L., Dove, B.K., Jackson, R.M., Collins, R., Brooks, G., Hiscox, J.A. Traffic (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. Baculovirus expression of turkey coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. Breslin, J.J., Smith, L.G., Guy, J.S. Avian Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Characterization of the nuclear export signal in the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus nucleocapsid protein. Reed, M.L., Howell, G., Harrison, S.M., Spencer, K.A., Hiscox, J.A. J. Virol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  5. Ribonucleocapsid Formation of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus through Molecular Action of the N-Terminal Domain of N Protein. Saikatendu, K.S., Joseph, J.S., Subramanian, V., Neuman, B.W., Buchmeier, M.J., Stevens, R.C., Kuhn, P. J. Virol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. X-ray structures of the N- and C-terminal domains of a coronavirus nucleocapsid protein: implications for nucleocapsid formation. Jayaram, H., Fan, H., Bowman, B.R., Ooi, A., Jayaram, J., Collisson, E.W., Lescar, J., Prasad, B.V. J. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. The carboxyl-terminal 120-residue polypeptide of infectious bronchitis virus nucleocapsid induces cytotoxic T lymphocytes and protects chickens from acute infection. Seo, S.H., Wang, L., Smith, R., Collisson, E.W. J. Virol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. The amino and carboxyl domains of the infectious bronchitis virus nucleocapsid protein interact with 3' genomic RNA. Zhou, M., Collisson, E.W. Virus Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Development of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of turkey coronavirus antibodies. Guy, J.S., Smith, L.G., Breslin, J.J., Pakpinyo, S. Avian Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Coronavirus IBV: further evidence that the surface projections are associated with two glycopolypeptides. Cavanagh, D. J. Gen. Virol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  11. Infectious bronchitis virus nucleocapsid protein interactions with the 3' untranslated region of genomic RNA depend on uridylate bases. Collisson, E.W., Zhou, M., Gershon, P., Jayaram, J. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Sequences of the nucleocapsid genes from two strains of avian infectious bronchitis virus. Boursnell, M.E., Binns, M.M., Foulds, I.J., Brown, T.D. J. Gen. Virol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Complete sequences of 3' end coding region for structural protein genes of turkey coronavirus. Lin, T.L., Loa, C.C., Wu, C.C. Virus Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Coronavirus IBV: partial amino terminal sequencing of spike polypeptide S2 identifies the sequence Arg-Arg-Phe-Arg-Arg at the cleavage site of the spike precursor propolypeptide of IBV strains Beaudette and M41. Cavanagh, D., Davis, P.J., Pappin, D.J., Binns, M.M., Boursnell, M.E., Brown, T.D. Virus Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Sequence changes of infectious bronchitis virus isolates in the 3' 7.3 kb of the genome after attenuating passage in embryonated eggs. Huang, Y.P., Wang, C.H. Avian Pathol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Study of protection by recombinant fowl poxvirus expressing C-terminal nucleocapsid protein of infectious bronchitis virus against challenge. Yu, L., Liu, W., Schnitzlein, W.M., Tripathy, D.N., Kwang, J. Avian Dis. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Amino acid residues critical for RNA-binding in the N-terminal domain of the nucleocapsid protein are essential determinants for the infectivity of coronavirus in cultured cells. Tan, Y.W., Fang, S., Fan, H., Lescar, J., Liu, D.X. Nucleic Acids Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. MHC class II-restricted T-cell hybridomas recognizing the nucleocapsid protein of avian coronavirus IBV. Boots, A.M., Van Lierop, M.J., Kusters, J.G., Van Kooten, P.J., Van der Zeijst, B.A., Hensen, E.J. Immunology (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Localization of a T-cell epitope within the nucleocapsid protein of avian coronavirus. Boots, A.M., Kusters, J.G., van Noort, J.M., Zwaagstra, K.A., Rijke, E., van der Zeijst, B.A., Hensen, E.J. Immunology (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Induction of anti-viral immune responses by immunization with recombinant-DNA encoded avian coronavirus nucleocapsid protein. Boots, A.M., Benaissa-Trouw, B.J., Hesselink, W., Rijke, E., Schrier, C., Hensen, E.J. Vaccine (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Monoclonal antibodies to three structural proteins of avian infectious bronchitis virus: characterization of epitopes and antigenic differentiation of Australian strains. Ignjatovic, J., McWaters, P.G. J. Gen. Virol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Development and application of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-expressed nucleocapsid protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against infectious bronchitis virus. Gibertoni, A.M., Montassier, M.d.e. .F., Sena, J.A., Givisiez, P.E., Furuyama, C.R., Montassier, H.J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Rapid detection and identification of avian infectious bronchitis virus. Zwaagstra, K.A., van der Zeijst, B.A., Kusters, J.G. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Characterisation of the RNA binding properties of the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus nucleocapsid protein amino-terminal region. Spencer, K.A., Hiscox, J.A. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  25. Molecular epizootiology of infectious bronchitis virus in Sweden indicating the involvement of a vaccine strain. Farsang, A., Ros, C., Renström, L.H., Baule, C., Soós, T., Belák, S. Avian Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  26. S1 and N gene analysis of avian infectious bronchitis viruses in Taiwan. Huang, Y.P., Lee, H.C., Cheng, M.C., Wang, C.H. Avian Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
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