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Gene Review

Fh  -  fumarate hydratase

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Fh1, Fumarase, Fumarate hydratase, mitochondrial
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High impact information on Fh1


Biological context of Fh1


Anatomical context of Fh1

  • The following observations strongly suggested that the 35S-labeled mature size fumarase in mitochondria was derived from P1, which was energy-dependently imported and concomitantly processed to the mature size [7].
  • When the 35S-labeled cell-free translation products were incubated with rat liver mitochondria at 30 degrees C, P1 and the 35S-labeled mature size fumarase were associated with the mitochondria [7].
  • Two different putative precursor polypeptides of rat liver fumarase were synthesized when RNA prepared from rat liver were translated in vitro using the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system [7].
  • The cerebrum and cerebellum of myo-inositol deprived rats had normal myelination and mitochondriogenesis as judged by the levels of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide-3'-phosphohydrolase (EC and fumarase (EC activity, respectively [8].
  • Rat liver cells may contain a specific RNA(18S) modulating the translational activity of mRNA for fumarase [9].

Associations of Fh1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of Fh1

  • The free radical scavengers (i.e. cuprozinc cytosolic and mangano mitochondrial superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase), mitochondrial oxidative marker enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and fumarase), and lipid peroxide were measured in liver, heart, soleus (slow oxidative), and extensor digitorum longus (fast glycolytic) muscles [15].
  • Activity levels for all five enzymes (CuZn-SOD, Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase, fumarase, and cytochrome c oxidase) were low for days 1-4 after release and did not return to control levels by the seventh day [16].
  • The final preparation was free of malic dehydrogenase, fumarase, the strictly NADP+-linked malic enzyme and adenylate kinase [17].
  • The levels of hexokinase, as well as those of the cytoplasmic glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase and the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes fumarase and citrate synthase, have been determined in whole rat brain and in neuronal, astrocytic, and oligodendroglial fractions isolated from rat brain [18].
  • The effect of the lesion separated the enzymes into two groups: the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, carnitine acetyltransferase, fumarase and aspartate transaminase decreased by 30--40%, whereas the activities of the other enzymes descreased 5--15% [19].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Fh1


  1. Argininosuccinate synthetase mRNA and activity are induced by immunostimulants in vascular smooth muscle. Role in the regeneration or arginine for nitric oxide synthesis. Hattori, Y., Campbell, E.B., Gross, S.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  2. Glutamate-malate metabolism in liver mitochondria. A model constructed on the basis of mitochondrial levels of enzymes, specificity, dissociation constants, and stoichiometry of hetero-enzyme complexes. Fahien, L.A., Teller, J.K. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. Rat liver mitochondrial and cytosolic fumarases with identical amino acid sequences are encoded from a single gene. Suzuki, T., Sato, M., Yoshida, T., Tuboi, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  4. Biochemical genetics of methylglyoxal dehydrogenases in the laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus). Bender, K., Seibert, R.T., Wienker, T.F., Kren, V., Pravenec, M., Bissbort, S. Biochem. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Organization of Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes in mitochondria. Robinson, J.B., Srere, P.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of birth on energy metabolism in the rat kidney. Bastin, J., Delaval, E., Freund, N., Razanoelina, M., Djouadi, F., Bismuth, J., Geloso, J.P. Biochem. J. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Translocation of proteins into rat liver mitochondria. Existence of two different precursor polypeptides of liver fumarase and import of the precursor into mitochondria. Ono, H., Yoshimura, N., Sato, M., Tuboi, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. myo-Inositol metabolism in the neonatal and developing rat fed a myo-inositol-free diet. Burton, L.E., Ray, R.E., Bradford, J.R., Orr, J.P., Nickerson, J.A., Wells, W.W. J. Nutr. (1976) [Pubmed]
  9. Rat liver mitochondrial and cytosolic fumarases with identical amino acid sequences are encoded from a single mRNA with two alternative in-phase AUG initiation sites. Tuboi, S., Suzuki, T., Sato, M., Yoshida, T. Adv. Enzyme Regul. (1990) [Pubmed]
  10. Perturbation of mitochondrial composition in muscle by iron deficiency. Implications regarding regulation of mitochondrial assembly. Cartier, L.J., Ohira, Y., Chen, M., Cuddihee, R.W., Holloszy, J.O. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Regulation of malate dehydrogenase activity by glutamate, citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and multienzyme interaction. Fahien, L.A., Kmiotek, E.H., MacDonald, M.J., Fibich, B., Mandic, M. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Crucial role of sulfhydryl groups in the mitochondrial inner membrane structure. Lê-Quôc, K., Lê-Quôc, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Enzyme-to-enzyme channelling of symmetric Krebs cycle intermediates in pancreatic islet cells. Malaisse, W.J., Ladrière, L., Zhang, T.M., Verbruggen, I., Willem, R. Diabetologia (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Regional enzyme development in rat brain. Enzymes of energy metabolism. Leong, S.F., Clark, J.B. Biochem. J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. Lipid peroxidation and free radical scavengers in thyroid dysfunction in the rat: a possible mechanism of injury to heart and skeletal muscle in hyperthyroidism. Asayama, K., Dobashi, K., Hayashibe, H., Megata, Y., Kato, K. Endocrinology (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. The role of endogenous free radical scavengers on tissue recovery in the experimental ulcer model. Oshima, A., Asayama, K., Sakai, N., Kitajima, M. J. Clin. Gastroenterol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. The mitochondrial malic enzymes. I. Submitochondrial localization and purification and properties of the NAD(P)+-dependent enzyme from adrenal cortex. Mandella, R.D., Sauer, L.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  18. Relative levels of hexokinase in isolated neuronal, astrocytic, and oligodendroglial fractions from rat brain. Snyder, C.D., Wilson, J.E. J. Neurochem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Acetyl-CoA synthesizing enzymes in cholinergic nerve terminals. Sterri, S.H., Fonnum, F. J. Neurochem. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Stereochemistry of a methyl-group rearrangement during the biosynthesis of lanosterol. Phillips, G.T., Clifford, K.H. Eur. J. Biochem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  21. Effects of 6-hydroxydopamine Treatment at birth on the submaxillary gland of the rat. Perec, C.J., Stefano, F.J., Baratti, C.M., Tumilasci, O.R. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. The influence of adrenalectomy on monoamine oxidase and NADH cytochrome c reductase in the rat heart. Della Corte, L., Callingham, B.A. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  23. Effect of orchidectomy and testosterone substitution on enzyme activities and DNA content in rat liver and epididymal fat. Haug, A., Spydevold, O., Høstmark, A.T. Int. J. Biochem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  24. Comparison of populations of mRNA coding fumarase in rat brain and liver. Hiraga, K., Tuboi, S. Biochem. Int. (1985) [Pubmed]
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