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Gene Review

Glud1  -  glutamate dehydrogenase 1

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Ac2-281, GDH 1, Gdh1, Glud, Gludeha, ...
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Disease relevance of Glud1

  • Therefore, during acidosis, the pH-responsive stabilization of GDH mRNA may be accomplished by the same mechanism that affects an increase in GA mRNA [1].
  • Mitochondrial toxicity reflected itself also in decreased content of various cytochromes and reduced activity of enzymes, including glutamate dehydrogenase [2].
  • Chronic ethanol consumption for 12 weeks (mean daily ethanol intake 11.4 gm per body weight corresponding to 29% of total energy intake) did not cause histological changes but decreased GPT activity, increased glutamate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase activities and did not alter their pp/pv distribution [3].
  • Deficiencies of glial GDH and the consequent cytotoxic effects of high levels of excitatory amino acids may contribute to a number of neurodegenerative disorders [4].
  • These mechanisms provide an explanation for hypoglycemia caused by mutations of GDH in children [5].

Psychiatry related information on Glud1


High impact information on Glud1

  • In isolated liver mitochondria, state 3 oxidation rates were unchanged or decreased, and activities of the mitochondrial enzymes, citrate synthetase, succinate dehydrogenase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase (expressed per milligram mitochondrial protein) were unaffected by HCCL treatment [7].
  • Serum glutamyl oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were significantly increased in ethanol-fed rats [8].
  • The leucine analog beta-2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic acid (BCH) activates glutamate dehydrogenase [L-glutamate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (deaminating), EC] in pancreatic islet homogenates [9].
  • The capacity of seven distinct amino acids to activate glutamate dehydrogenase tightly correlated with their ability to augment 14CO2 output from islets prelabeled with [U-14C]-glutamine and to stimulate insulin release in the presence of L-glutamine [9].
  • Liver enzymes were detected in high amounts in the serum (eightfold elevation of glutamate dehydrogenase, fivefold elevation of alanine transaminase [ALT]) 7 hours after the first visible sign of apoptosis [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Glud1


Biological context of Glud1


Anatomical context of Glud1


Associations of Glud1 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of Glud1


Regulatory relationships of Glud1


Other interactions of Glud1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Glud1


  1. pH-responsive stabilization of glutamate dehydrogenase mRNA in LLC-PK1-F+ cells. Schroeder, J.M., Liu, W., Curthoys, N.P. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Hepatotoxicity of vitamin A and ethanol in the rat. Leo, M.A., Arai, M., Sato, M., Lieber, C.S. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. The effect of chronic ethanol ingestion on ethanol metabolizing enzymes in isolated periportal and perivenous rat hepatocytes. Väänänen, H., Salaspuro, M., Lindros, K. Hepatology (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Regional distribution of astrocytes with intense immunoreactivity for glutamate dehydrogenase in rat brain: implications for neuron-glia interactions in glutamate transmission. Aoki, C., Milner, T.A., Sheu, K.F., Blass, J.P., Pickel, V.M. J. Neurosci. (1987) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of leucine-stimulated insulin secretion and glutamine metabolism in isolated rat islets. Li, C., Najafi, H., Daikhin, Y., Nissim, I.B., Collins, H.W., Yudkoff, M., Matschinsky, F.M., Stanley, C.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Amino-acid metabolism enzyme activities in rat white adipose tissue. López-Soriano, F.J., Alemany, M. Arch. Int. Physiol. Biochim. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Increased hepatic mitochondrial capacity in rats with hydroxy-cobalamin[c-lactam]-induced methylmalonic aciduria. Krahenbuhl, S., Ray, D.B., Stabler, S.P., Allen, R.H., Brass, E.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Increased hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen after chronic ethanol consumption in the rat. Sato, C., Matsuda, Y., Lieber, C.S. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Stimulation of pancreatic islet metabolism and insulin release by a nonmetabolizable amino acid. Sener, A., Malaisse-Lagae, F., Malaisse, W.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. The antiandrogen cyproterone acetate induces synthesis of transforming growth factor beta 1 in the parenchymal cells of the liver accompanied by an enhanced sensitivity to undergo apoptosis and necrosis without inflammation. Oberhammer, F., Nagy, P., Tiefenbacher, R., Fröschl, G., Bouzahzah, B., Thorgeirsson, S.S., Carr, B. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Metabolism of glutamine and glutamate by rat renal tubules. Study with 15N and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nissim, I., Yudkoff, M., Segal, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Regulation and differential expression of gdhA encoding NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase in Neisseria meningitidis clinical isolates. Pagliarulo, C., Salvatore, P., De Vitis, L.R., Colicchio, R., Monaco, C., Tredici, M., Talà, A., Bardaro, M., Lavitola, A., Bruni, C.B., Alifano, P. Mol. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Activation of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase in the kidney in response to acute acidosis. Lowry, M., Ross, B.D. Biochem. J. (1980) [Pubmed]
  14. Gluconeogenesis in meal-fed, vitamin B-6-deficient rats. Angel, J.F. J. Nutr. (1980) [Pubmed]
  15. Nucleotide sequence of rat liver glutamate dehydrogenase cDNA. Amuro, N., Ooki, K., Ito, A., Goto, Y., Okazaki, T. Nucleic Acids Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Identification of the CoA-modified forms of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase and of glutamate dehydrogenase as nearest-neighbour proteins. Schwerdt, G., Möller, U., Huth, W. Biochem. J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Identification and analysis of a matrix-attachment region 5' of the rat glutamate-dehydrogenase-encoding gene. Das, A.T., Ludérus, M.E., Lamers, W.H. Eur. J. Biochem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Stereological and functional analysis of liver mitochondria from rats with secondary biliary cirrhosis: impaired mitochondrial metabolism and increased mitochondrial content per hepatocyte. Krähenbühl, S., Krähenbühl-Glauser, S., Stucki, J., Gehr, P., Reichen, J. Hepatology (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Glutamate dehydrogenase activation and ammonia formation by rat kidney mitochondria. Schoolwerth, A.C., Nazar, B.L., LaNoue, K.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1978) [Pubmed]
  20. A mechanism of sulfite neurotoxicity: direct inhibition of glutamate dehydrogenase. Zhang, X., Vincent, A.S., Halliwell, B., Wong, K.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Different types of mitochondria in parenchymal and non-parenchymal rat-liver cells. Van Berkel, T.J., Kruijt, J.K. Eur. J. Biochem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  22. Histochemical demonstration of glutamate dehydrogenase and phosphate-activated glutaminase activities in semithin sections of the rat retina. Gebhard, R. Histochemistry (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. A simple animal model of hyperammonemia. Azorín, I., Miñana, M.D., Felipo, V., Grisolía, S. Hepatology (1989) [Pubmed]
  24. Experimental evidence that the physiological position of the liver within the circulation is not a major determinant of zonation of gene expression. Wagenaar, G.T., Chamuleau, R.A., de Haan, J.G., Maas, M.A., de Boer, P.A., Marx, F., Moorman, A.F., Frederiks, W.M., Lamers, W.H. Hepatology (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Galactosamine hepatitis, endotoxemia, and lactulose. van Vugt, H., van Gool, J., Thomas, L.L. Hepatology (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Crucial role of sulfhydryl groups in the mitochondrial inner membrane structure. Lê-Quôc, K., Lê-Quôc, D. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  27. Alanine and glutamine synthesis and release from skeletal muscle. III. Dietary and hormonal regulation. Karl, I.E., Garber, A.J., Kipnis, D.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. Late memory-related genes in the hippocampus revealed by RNA fingerprinting. Cavallaro, S., Meiri, N., Yi, C.L., Musco, S., Ma, W., Goldberg, J., Alkon, D.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  29. Steady-state in vivo glutamate dehydrogenase activity in rat brain measured by 15N NMR. Kanamori, K., Ross, B.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. beta-Carotene beadlets potentiate hepatotoxicity of alcohol. Leo, M.A., Aleynik, S.I., Aleynik, M.K., Lieber, C.S. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Hormonal effects on liver glutamate dehydrogenase in adrenalectomized and thyroidectomized rats. Yaroni, S., Balinsky, J.B. Endocrinology (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. Immunocytochemical characterization of glutamate dehydrogenase in the cerebellum of the rat. Wenthold, R.J., Altschuler, R.A., Skaggs, K.K., Reeks, K.A. J. Neurochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
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