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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Orchiectomy


Psychiatry related information on Orchiectomy


High impact information on Orchiectomy

  • Orchiectomy evokes the feminine pattern whereas testosterone administration induces the male pattern [8].
  • These results were sensitive to the quality of life associated with orchiectomy and the efficacy of combined androgen blockade, and they changed little when prostate-specific antigen results were used to guide therapy [9].
  • At a cost of $7000, orchiectomy was associated with 5.1 QALYs, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $7500/QALY relative to DES [9].
  • Moreover, bone histomorphometric analysis of trabecular bone revealed that, in contrast to IL-6 sufficient mice which exhibited increased osteoclast numbers and bone loss following orchidectomy, IL-6 deficient mice (generated by targeted gene disruption) did not [10].
  • Hormonal regulation of serum Lp (a) levels. Opposite effects after estrogen treatment and orchidectomy in males with prostatic carcinoma [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Orchiectomy


Biological context of Orchiectomy


Anatomical context of Orchiectomy


Associations of Orchiectomy with chemical compounds


Gene context of Orchiectomy

  • RESULTS: AR inactivation or orchidectomy induced a similar degree of trabecular bone loss (-68% and -71%, respectively) [28].
  • On the other hand, neither orchiectomy nor androgen treatment affected levels of mRNAs for EGFR in the kidney or mRNAs for the structural protein beta-actin in the liver [29].
  • After unilateral orchiectomy, mEP17 levels decreased only in the orchiectomized side [30].
  • Consistent with this, IL-6-deficient mice do not exhibit an increase in the formation of osteoclasts after ovariectomy or orchidectomy, and are protected from the bone loss caused by the loss of gonadal function in either sex [31].
  • Orchidectomy of adult rats had no effect on the number of somatotropes or lactotropes, but significantly reduced GH and PRL mRNA levels [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Orchiectomy


  1. Immediate adjuvant chemotherapy versus observation with treatment at relapse in pathological stage II testicular cancer. Williams, S.D., Stablein, D.M., Einhorn, L.H., Muggia, F.M., Weiss, R.B., Donohue, J.P., Paulson, D.F., Brunner, K.W., Jacobs, E.M., Spaulding, J.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Bilateral orchiectomy with or without flutamide for metastatic prostate cancer. Eisenberger, M.A., Blumenstein, B.A., Crawford, E.D., Miller, G., McLeod, D.G., Loehrer, P.J., Wilding, G., Sears, K., Culkin, D.J., Thompson, I.M., Bueschen, A.J., Lowe, B.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Tamoxifen before orchiectomy for breast cancer in men. Abele, R., Alberto, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Association of African-American ethnic background with survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer. Thompson, I., Tangen, C., Tolcher, A., Crawford, E., Eisenberger, M., Moinpour, C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. PR1--a monoclonal antibody that reacts with an antigen on the surface of normal and malignant prostate cells. Pastan, I., Lovelace, E., Rutherford, A.V., Kunwar, S., Willingham, M.C., Peehl, D.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Individual differences in LH and FSH responses to orchidectomy and testosterone replacement therapy in rams. D'Occhio, M.J., Schanbacher, B.D., Kinder, J.E. J. Androl. (1983) [Pubmed]
  7. Use of orchiectomy and testosterone replacement to explore meal number-to-meal size relationship in male rats. Chai, J.K., Blaha, V., Meguid, M.M., Laviano, A., Yang, Z.J., Varma, M. Am. J. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Testosterone-mediated sexual dimorphism of mitochondria and lysosomes in mouse kidney proximal tubules. Koenig, H., Goldstone, A., Blume, G., Lu, C.Y. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Cost-effectiveness of androgen suppression therapies in advanced prostate cancer. Bayoumi, A.M., Brown, A.D., Garber, A.M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Regulation of interleukin-6, osteoclastogenesis, and bone mass by androgens. The role of the androgen receptor. Bellido, T., Jilka, R.L., Boyce, B.F., Girasole, G., Broxmeyer, H., Dalrymple, S.A., Murray, R., Manolagas, S.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Hormonal regulation of serum Lp (a) levels. Opposite effects after estrogen treatment and orchidectomy in males with prostatic carcinoma. Henriksson, P., Angelin, B., Berglund, L. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  12. Retardation of prostate tumor progression in the Noble rat by 4-methyl-4-aza-steroidal inhibitors of 5 alpha-reductase. Kadohama, N., Wakisaka, M., Kim, U., Karr, J.P., Murphy, G.P., Sandberg, A.A. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Effects of continued androgen-deprivation therapy and other prognostic factors on response and survival in phase II chemotherapy trials for hormone-refractory prostate cancer: a Southwest Oncology Group report. Hussain, M., Wolf, M., Marshall, E., Crawford, E.D., Eisenberger, M. J. Clin. Oncol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Impaired testicular function in patients with carcinoma-in-situ of the testis. Petersen, P.M., Giwercman, A., Hansen, S.W., Berthelsen, J.G., Daugaard, G., Rørth, M., Skakkebaek, N.E. J. Clin. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer with low-dose prednisone: evaluation of pain and quality of life as pragmatic indices of response. Tannock, I., Gospodarowicz, M., Meakin, W., Panzarella, T., Stewart, L., Rider, W. J. Clin. Oncol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Goserelin. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and clinical use in sex hormone-related conditions. Chrisp, P., Goa, K.L. Drugs (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Sex differences in gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity in Sprague-Dawley rats. Mezey, E., Sharma, S., Rennie, L., Potter, J.J. Gastroenterology (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Aging in peripheral nerves: regulation of myelin protein genes by steroid hormones. Melcangi, R.C., Magnaghi, V., Martini, L. Prog. Neurobiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Fertility after chemotherapy for testicular germ cell cancers. Lampe, H., Horwich, A., Norman, A., Nicholls, J., Dearnaley, D.P. J. Clin. Oncol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  20. The skeletal effects of glucocorticoid excess override those of orchidectomy in mice. Weinstein, R.S., Jia, D., Powers, C.C., Stewart, S.A., Jilka, R.L., Parfitt, A.M., Manolagas, S.C. Endocrinology (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Orchidectomy induces a wave of apoptotic cell death in the epididymis. Fan, X., Robaire, B. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Natural history of rising serum prostate-specific antigen in men with castrate nonmetastatic prostate cancer. Smith, M.R., Kabbinavar, F., Saad, F., Hussain, A., Gittelman, M.C., Bilhartz, D.L., Wynne, C., Murray, R., Zinner, N.R., Schulman, C., Linnartz, R., Zheng, M., Goessl, C., Hei, Y.J., Small, E.J., Cook, R., Higano, C.S. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Selective failure of androgens to regulate follicle stimulating hormone beta messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the male rat. Wierman, M.E., Gharib, S.D., LaRovere, J.M., Badger, T.M., Chin, W.W. Mol. Endocrinol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. OCT4: A sensitive and specific biomarker for intratubular germ cell neoplasia of the testis. Jones, T.D., Ulbright, T.M., Eble, J.N., Cheng, L. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Gene expression is differentially regulated in the epididymis after orchidectomy. Ezer, N., Robaire, B. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Effects of long-term orchidectomy on in vitro pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone release from the medial basal hypothalamus of the adult guinea pig. Giri, M., Kaufman, J.M. Endocrinology (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. In vivo selection of androgen-insensitive cells in R3327-G rat prostate tumors: diethylstilbestrol diphosphate treatment versus orchiectomy. Pollack, A., Block, N.L., Stover, B.J., Irvin, G.L., Fuentes, M.P., Claflin, A.J., Malinin, T.I. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1983) [Pubmed]
  28. Relative impact of androgen and estrogen receptor activation in the effects of androgens on trabecular and cortical bone in growing male mice: a study in the androgen receptor knockout mouse model. Venken, K., De Gendt, K., Boonen, S., Ophoff, J., Bouillon, R., Swinnen, J.V., Verhoeven, G., Vanderschueren, D. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Pretranslational enhancement of epidermal growth factor receptor by direct effect of testosterone in mouse liver. Noguchi, S., Ohba, Y., Oka, T. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Identification, immunolocalization, regulation, and postnatal development of the lipocalin EP17 (epididymal protein of 17 kilodaltons) in the mouse and rat epididymis. Fouchécourt, S., Lareyre, J.J., Chaurand, P., DaGue, B.B., Suzuki, K., Ong, D.E., Olson, G.E., Matusik, R.J., Caprioli, R.M., Orgebin-Crist, M.C. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Role of cytokines in bone resorption. Manolagas, S.C. Bone (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Cellular composition of the adult rat anterior pituitary is influenced by the neonatal sex steroid environment. González-Parra, S., Argente, J., García-Segura, L.M., Chowen, J.A. Neuroendocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Quality of life in advanced prostate cancer: results of a randomized therapeutic trial. Moinpour, C.M., Savage, M.J., Troxel, A., Lovato, L.C., Eisenberger, M., Veith, R.W., Higgins, B., Skeel, R., Yee, M., Blumenstein, B.A., Crawford, E.D., Meyskens, F.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. Long-term follow-up of cardiovascular risk factors in patients given chemotherapy for disseminated nonseminomatous testicular cancer. Gietema, J.A., Sleijfer, D.T., Willemse, P.H., Schraffordt Koops, H., van Ittersum, E., Verschuren, W.M., Kromhout, D., Sluiter, W.J., Mulder, N.H., de Vries, E.G. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. Characterization and measurement of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in rat brain. Corpéchot, C., Robel, P., Axelson, M., Sjövall, J., Baulieu, E.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  36. Functional correlation of trophinin expression with the malignancy of testicular germ cell tumor. Hatakeyama, S., Ohyama, C., Minagawa, S., Inoue, T., Kakinuma, H., Kyan, A., Arai, Y., Suga, T., Nakayama, J., Kato, T., Habuchi, T., Fukuda, M.N. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Estrogens influence the natural history of Sinclair swine cutaneous melanoma. Beattie, C.W., Ronan, S.G., Amoss, M.S. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
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