The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Gene Review

trx  -  trithorax

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 4720, 4733, CG8651, DMTRXIII, Dmel\CG8651, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of trx


High impact information on trx


Biological context of trx

  • Genetic evidence suggests that trx may be considered a positive regulator of homeotic genes [1].
  • Sequencing of cDNAs corresponding to the entire trx transcription unit revealed the existence of an unusually long open reading frame encoding 3759 amino acids [1].
  • P-element mediated transformation using 34 kb of genomic DNA containing the 25 kb trx transcription unit identifies all sequences necessary for normal trx function and limits the 5' and 3' flanking sequences that could be used in a regulatory capacity to relatively small regions [8].
  • Trithorax binding occurs within an 8.4-kb regulatory region that directs fork head expression in several embryonic tissues including salivary glands [9].
  • A strong trithorax binding site was found at the cytological location of the fork head gene, a region-specific homeotic gene not located within a homeotic complex [9].

Anatomical context of trx


Associations of trx with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of trx


Other interactions of trx

  • At the same stage, TRX but not PC is strongly associated with core promoters [23].
  • In addition, we have identified the minimal fragments from the Ultrabithorax (Ubx) regulatory region that are capable of recruiting TRX to chromosomal sites containing them [23].
  • We show that trx does indeed exert its effects by positively regulating homeotic gene expression and that its effects on expression of individual homeotic genes are complex: each of the BX-C and ANT-C genes examined exhibits different tissue-specific, parasegment-specific and promoter-specific reductions in their expression [24].
  • Direct binding was demonstrated by GST pull-down experiments and PP1beta9C/TRX interaction in vivo was confirmed by coimmune precipitation from Drosophila embryonic extracts [19].
  • These results also imply that those components of homeotic gene expression patterns for which trx is dispensable, require other factors, possibly those encoded by other trithorax-like genes [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of trx

  • Dissection of one of these maintenance modules showed that TRX- and Polycomb-group responsiveness is conferred by neighboring but separable DNA sequences, suggesting that independent protein complexes are formed at their respective response elements [25].
  • Interaction between PP1c and TRX was confirmed in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation from Drosophila extracts [15].
  • This work represents the first microarray analysis, to our knowledge, of a trithorax-group gene [26].
  • Although sequence analysis indicates that the EST41159 gene product is novel, a region of amino acid identity with sequences of a yeast polypeptide of, as yet, unknown function and the Drosophila trithorax protein suggests the presence of an evolutionarily and functionally conserved domain [27].


  1. The trithorax gene, a trans-acting regulator of the bithorax complex in Drosophila, encodes a protein with zinc-binding domains. Mazo, A.M., Huang, D.H., Mozer, B.A., Dawid, I.B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. MLL5, a homolog of Drosophila trithorax located within a segment of chromosome band 7q22 implicated in myeloid leukemia. Emerling, B.M., Bonifas, J., Kratz, C.P., Donovan, S., Taylor, B.R., Green, E.D., Le Beau, M.M., Shannon, K.M. Oncogene (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Trithorax is required to maintain engrailed expression in a subset of engrailed-expressing cells. Breen, T.R., Chinwalla, V., Harte, P.J. Mech. Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  4. Involvement of a homolog of Drosophila trithorax by 11q23 chromosomal translocations in acute leukemias. Tkachuk, D.C., Kohler, S., Cleary, M.L. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Polycomb and trithorax group proteins mediate the function of a chromatin insulator. Gerasimova, T.I., Corces, V.G. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Trithorax and dCBP acting in a complex to maintain expression of a homeotic gene. Petruk, S., Sedkov, Y., Smith, S., Tillib, S., Kraevski, V., Nakamura, T., Canaani, E., Croce, C.M., Mazo, A. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. A homeotic mutation in the trithorax SET domain impedes histone binding. Katsani, K.R., Arredondo, J.J., Kal, A.J., Verrijzer, C.P. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular characterization of the trithorax gene, a positive regulator of homeotic gene expression in Drosophila. Breen, T.R., Harte, P.J. Mech. Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. The Drosophila trithorax gene encodes a chromosomal protein and directly regulates the region-specific homeotic gene fork head. Kuzin, B., Tillib, S., Sedkov, Y., Mizrokhi, L., Mazo, A. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Functional reconstruction of trans regulation of the Ultrabithorax promoter by the products of two antagonistic genes, trithorax and Polycomb. Chang, Y.L., King, B.O., O'Connor, M., Mazo, A., Huang, D.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. The bithorax complex is regulated by trithorax earlier during Drosophila embryogenesis than is the Antennapedia complex, correlating with a bithorax-like expression pattern of distinct early trithorax transcripts. Sedkov, Y., Tillib, S., Mizrokhi, L., Mazo, A. Development (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Conservation of structure and expression of the trithorax gene between Drosophila virilis and Drosophila melanogaster. Tillib, S., Sedkov, Y., Mizrokhi, L., Mazo, A. Mech. Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Tissue-specific TAFs counteract Polycomb to turn on terminal differentiation. Chen, X., Hiller, M., Sancak, Y., Fuller, M.T. Science (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. The Drosophila trithorax proteins contain a novel variant of the nuclear receptor type DNA binding domain and an ancient conserved motif found in other chromosomal proteins. Stassen, M.J., Bailey, D., Nelson, S., Chinwalla, V., Harte, P.J. Mech. Dev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Trithorax interacts with type 1 serine/threonine protein phosphatase in Drosophila. Rudenko, A., Bennett, D., Alphey, L. EMBO Rep. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. ASH1, a Drosophila trithorax group protein, is required for methylation of lysine 4 residues on histone H3. Byrd, K.N., Shearn, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. DEAF-1, a novel protein that binds an essential region in a Deformed response element. Gross, C.T., McGinnis, W. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. The direct interaction between ASH2, a Drosophila trithorax group protein, and SKTL, a nuclear phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase, implies a role for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate in maintaining transcriptionally active chromatin. Cheng, M.K., Shearn, A. Genetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. PP1beta9C interacts with Trithorax in Drosophila wing development. Rudenko, A., Bennett, D., Alphey, L. Dev. Dyn. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. The Drosophila trithorax group proteins BRM, ASH1 and ASH2 are subunits of distinct protein complexes. Papoulas, O., Beek, S.J., Moseley, S.L., McCallum, C.M., Sarte, M., Shearn, A., Tamkun, J.W. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. The Drosophila trithorax protein binds to specific chromosomal sites and is co-localized with Polycomb at many sites. Chinwalla, V., Jane, E.P., Harte, P.J. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization of the extended Myb-like DNA-binding domain of trithorax group protein Zeste. Mohrmann, L., Kal, A.J., Verrijzer, C.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Binding of trithorax and Polycomb proteins to the bithorax complex: dynamic changes during early Drosophila embryogenesis. Orlando, V., Jane, E.P., Chinwalla, V., Harte, P.J., Paro, R. EMBO J. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Trithorax regulates multiple homeotic genes in the bithorax and Antennapedia complexes and exerts different tissue-specific, parasegment-specific and promoter-specific effects on each. Breen, T.R., Harte, P.J. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  25. Trithorax- and Polycomb-group response elements within an Ultrabithorax transcription maintenance unit consist of closely situated but separable sequences. Tillib, S., Petruk, S., Sedkov, Y., Kuzin, A., Fujioka, M., Goto, T., Mazo, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. Transcriptional network controlled by the trithorax-group gene ash2 in Drosophila melanogaster. Beltran, S., Blanco, E., Serras, F., Pérez-Villamil, B., Guigó, R., Artavanis-Tsakonas, S., Corominas, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  27. Isolation of a novel retinoic acid-responsive gene by selection of genomic fragments derived from CpG-island-enriched DNA. Shago, M., Giguére, V. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities