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Gene Review

GOLGB1  -  golgin B1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 372 kDa Golgi complex-associated protein, GCP, GCP372, GOLIM1, Giantin, ...
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Disease relevance of GOLGB1

  • GCP/IL-8-induced edema formation was found to be neutrophil dependent [1].
  • Response to infliximab treatment in Crohn's disease is not associated with mutations in the CARD15 (NOD2) gene: an analysis in 534 patients from two multicenter, prospective GCP-level trials [2].
  • The ICH GCP principles are discussed below within the framework of this recent typhoid fever vaccine study experience [3].
  • The data suggest that GCP II inhibition may provide a meaningful and effective approach to the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy [4].
  • A woman aged 59 years with adult-onset progressive myopathy had anti-Golgi (giantin) autoantibody in the serum [5].

Psychiatry related information on GOLGB1

  • Interestingly, even at relatively high doses of compounds, GCP II inhibition did not appear to be associated with learning/memory deficits in animals [6].

High impact information on GOLGB1

  • GCP-WD depletion also blocks mitotic chromatin-mediated microtubule nucleation, resulting in failure of spindle assembly [7].
  • Expression of cPLA(2) results in dispersion of giantin and beta-COP from their normal, condensed Golgi localization, and in marked disruption of the Golgi cisternae. cPLA(2) is present in Golgi fractions from noninfected LLC-PK(1) cells and rat kidney cortex [8].
  • The acidic COOH-terminal domain of p115 links the Golgins, Giantin on COPI vesicles, to GM130 on Golgi membranes [9].
  • Giantin, GM130, and GalNAcT2 relocated with approximately equal kinetics [10].
  • In contrast, neither reduction of giantin below detectable levels, nor inhibition of p115 binding to GM130, had any detectable effect on Golgi structure or Golgi reassembly after cell division or brefeldin A washout [11].

Biological context of GOLGB1


Anatomical context of GOLGB1

  • The Golgi localization of giantin was not affected by the deletion of its CMD or by substitution with the CMD of syntaxin-2, a plasma membrane protein [17].
  • The stable association of giantin with the putative released Golgi complex may contribute to its preferential autoantigenicity [18].
  • Giantin exhibited reduced mobility on nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, was recovered in membrane fractions after differential centrifugation or sucrose flotation, and was not released from membranes by carbonate extraction [19].
  • By forming a molecular tether between two membranes, p115, giantin, and GM130 may mediate multiple Golgi-related processes including vesicle transport, cisternae formation, and cisternal stacking [14].
  • In the presence of a vasodilator substance, pmol amounts of GCP/IL-8 induced neutrophil accumulation that was fast in onset, relatively short of duration (half life 60 to 70 minutes), and was associated with a parallel time course of plasma protein extravasation [1].

Associations of GOLGB1 with chemical compounds

  • Giantin is a resident Golgi protein that has an extremely long cytoplasmic domain (about 370 kDa) and is anchored to the Golgi membrane by the COOH-terminal membrane-anchoring domain (CMD) with no luminal extension [17].
  • Herein, we show that it is in fact a Golgi protein with a C-terminal TMD and shares with giantin and golgin-84 a conserved histidine in its TMD [20].
  • Golgi residents, such as TGN46, beta1,4-galactosyltransferase, giantin, and GM130, are still segregated and partitioned correctly into smaller stacked fragments in manganese-treated cells [21].
  • Ocrl was localized to endosomes and Golgi membranes along with clathrin, giantin, the mannose 6-phosphate receptor, transferrin, and the early endosomal antigen 1 endosomal marker in fixed cells [22].
  • GCP gels were bioadhesive but less so than hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, Carbopol 974NF (7:3) tablets [23].

Physical interactions of GOLGB1

  • These results question a simple tethering model involving a ternary giantin-p115-GM130 complex and suggest that p115-giantin and p115-GM130 interactions might mediate independent membrane tethering events [14].

Co-localisations of GOLGB1


Other interactions of GOLGB1

  • GM130 and giantin have been shown to function in the p115-mediated docking of vesicles with Golgi cisternae [12] [24].
  • CASP, the alternatively spliced product of the gene encoding the CCAAT-displacement protein transcription factor, is a Golgi membrane protein related to giantin [20].
  • We also examined two other Golgi-resident proteins, golgin-84 and syntaxin-5, with a similar membrane topology as giantin [17].
  • Autoantibodies to giantin, the largest Golgi autoantigen, were the predominant AGAs, being found in 50% of the AGA sera [18].
  • Identification and characterization of a novel Golgi protein, GCP60, that interacts with the integral membrane protein giantin [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GOLGB1

  • Epitope mapping of giantin was performed using six recombinant fragments spanning the entire protein [18].
  • We have identified a 400-kDa protein, giantin, that is localized to the Golgi complex because its staining in double immunofluorescence experiments was coincident with that of galactosyltransferase, both in untreated cells and in cells treated with agents that disrupt Golgi structure [19].
  • The patients were recruited from independent multicenter trials conducted according to GCP [2].
  • 2. The implementation of GCP guidelines has not been fully satisfactory and clinical trials in Japan still run into problems [25].
  • GCP gels could be loaded with up to 27.5% (w/w) of FITC-dextran by freeze-drying a dispersion of GCP in a solution of FITC-dextran [23].


  1. Granulocyte chemotactic protein/interleukin-8 induces plasma leakage and neutrophil accumulation in rabbit skin. Rampart, M., Van Damme, J., Zonnekeyn, L., Herman, A.G. Am. J. Pathol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  2. Response to infliximab treatment in Crohn's disease is not associated with mutations in the CARD15 (NOD2) gene: an analysis in 534 patients from two multicenter, prospective GCP-level trials. Mascheretti, S., Hampe, J., Croucher, P.J., Nikolaus, S., Andus, T., Schubert, S., Olson, A., Bao, W., Fölsch, U.R., Schreiber, S. Pharmacogenetics (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Implementation of good clinical practice guidelines in vaccine trials in developing countries. Acosta, C.J., Galindo, C.M., Ochiai, R.L., Danovaro-Holliday, M.C., Laure-Page, A., Thiem, V.D., Jin, Y., Khan, M.I., Sahito, S.M., Hamza, H.B., Park, J.K., Lee, H., Bock, H., Elyazeed, R.A., Albert, M.J., Ascaso, C., Robles, T.Q., Ali, M., Ngai, P., Puri, M.K., Koo, Y.M., Agtini, M.D., Soeharno, R., Bai-Qing, D., Kohl, D., Xu, Z.Y., Ivanoff, B., Jodar, L., Pang, T., Bhutta, Z., Clemens, J.D. Vaccine (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. The preventive and therapeutic effects of GCPII (NAALADase) inhibition on painful and sensory diabetic neuropathy. Zhang, W., Murakawa, Y., Wozniak, K.M., Slusher, B., Sima, A.A. J. Neurol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Progressive myopathy with circulating autoantibody against giantin in the Golgi apparatus. Sahashi, K., Ibi, T., Ohno, K., Sahashi, K., Nakao, N., Kondo, H. Neurology (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (NAALADase) inhibition as a novel therapeutic strategy. Thomas, A.G., Wozniak, K.M., Tsukamoto, T., Calvin, D., Wu, Y., Rojas, C., Vornov, J., Slusher, B.S. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. GCP-WD is a gamma-tubulin targeting factor required for centrosomal and chromatin-mediated microtubule nucleation. Lüders, J., Patel, U.K., Stearns, T. Nat. Cell Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Cytosolic phospholipase A(2) regulates golgi structure and modulates intracellular trafficking of membrane proteins. Choukroun, G.J., Marshansky, V., Gustafson, C.E., McKee, M., Hajjar, R.J., Rosenzweig, A., Brown, D., Bonventre, J.V. J. Clin. Invest. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Sequential tethering of Golgins and catalysis of SNAREpin assembly by the vesicle-tethering protein p115. Shorter, J., Beard, M.B., Seemann, J., Dirac-Svejstrup, A.B., Warren, G. J. Cell Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Evidence that the entire Golgi apparatus cycles in interphase HeLa cells: sensitivity of Golgi matrix proteins to an ER exit block. Miles, S., McManus, H., Forsten, K.E., Storrie, B. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Evidence that Golgi structure depends on a p115 activity that is independent of the vesicle tether components giantin and GM130. Puthenveedu, M.A., Linstedt, A.D. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Molecular genetic analyses of a 376-kilodalton Golgi complex membrane protein (giantin). Seelig, H.P., Schranz, P., Schröter, H., Wiemann, C., Griffiths, G., Renz, M. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification and characterization of a novel Golgi protein, GCP60, that interacts with the integral membrane protein giantin. Sohda, M., Misumi, Y., Yamamoto, A., Yano, A., Nakamura, N., Ikehara, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Binding relationships of membrane tethering components. The giantin N terminus and the GM130 N terminus compete for binding to the p115 C terminus. Linstedt, A.D., Jesch, S.A., Mehta, A., Lee, T.H., Garcia-Mata, R., Nelson, D.S., Sztul, E. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Identification and characterization of rat 364-kDa Golgi-associated protein recognized by autoantibodies from a patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Toki, C., Fujiwara, T., Sohda, M., Hong, H.S., Misumi, Y., Ikehara, Y. Cell Struct. Funct. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Assignment of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy to the distal region of Xq28: the results of a collaborative study. Consalez, G.G., Thomas, N.S., Stayton, C.L., Knight, S.J., Johnson, M., Hopkins, L.C., Harper, P.S., Elsas, L.J., Warren, S.T. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. An essential cytoplasmic domain for the Golgi localization of coiled-coil proteins with a COOH-terminal membrane anchor. Misumi, Y., Sohda, M., Tashiro, A., Sato, H., Ikehara, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Giantin is the major Golgi autoantigen in human anti-Golgi complex sera. Nozawa, K., Fritzler, M.J., von Mühlen, C.A., Chan, E.K. Arthritis Res. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Giantin, a novel conserved Golgi membrane protein containing a cytoplasmic domain of at least 350 kDa. Linstedt, A.D., Hauri, H.P. Mol. Biol. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. CASP, the alternatively spliced product of the gene encoding the CCAAT-displacement protein transcription factor, is a Golgi membrane protein related to giantin. Gillingham, A.K., Pfeifer, A.C., Munro, S. Mol. Biol. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. The manganese cation disrupts membrane dynamics along the secretory pathway. Towler, M.C., Prescott, A.R., James, J., Lucocq, J.M., Ponnambalam, S. Exp. Cell Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase Ocrl associates with endosomes that are partially coated with clathrin. Ungewickell, A., Ward, M.E., Ungewickell, E., Majerus, P.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. The release of model macromolecules may be controlled by the hydrophobicity of palmitoyl glycol chitosan hydrogels. Martin, L., Wilson, C.G., Koosha, F., Tetley, L., Gray, A.I., Senel, S., Uchegbu, I.F. Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. A novel Rab6-interacting domain defines a family of Golgi-targeted coiled-coil proteins. Barr, F.A. Curr. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Clinical pharmacologists and drug regulation--future perspective in Japan. Hirokawa, K. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1996) [Pubmed]
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