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Gene Review

KDR  -  kinase insert domain receptor (a type III...

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Disease relevance of KDR


High impact information on KDR

  • Placenta growth factor, which binds to Flt-1/VEGF-R1 but not Flk-1/KDR/VEGF-R2 receptor tyrosine kinase, failed to increase permeability [3].
  • The PKC inhibitor reduced Ang II-induced KDR mRNA expression by 70+/-15% [4].
  • The Ang II-induced KDR mRNA increase was inhibited by either [Sar1,Ile8]angiotensin or angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists but was not significantly altered by angiotensin type 2 receptor antagonists [4].
  • We also found that bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, a PPARgamma antagonist, partially inhibited troglitazone-stimulated NO production with a concomitant reduction in VEGF-KDR/Flk-1-Akt-mediated eNOS-Ser(1179) phosphorylation but with no alteration in eNOS-Ser(116) dephosphorylation induced by troglitazone [5].
  • These data are the first to establish a critical role of Flk-1/KDR in S1P-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation and activation [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of KDR


Biological context of KDR


Anatomical context of KDR

  • We now report that S1P treatment of bovine aortic endothelial cells acutely increases the tyrosine phosphorylation of Flk-1/KDR, similar to VEGF treatment [6].
  • In the present study, we demonstrate the expression of Flt, but not KDR, in bovine retinal pericytes (BRPCs) [11].
  • Double-label analysis showed that Flk-1/KDR and eNOS colocalize with caveolin-1 in plasma membrane caveolae [12].
  • Nuclear translocation of eNOS and Flk-1/KDR within caveolae may represent a mechanism for targeting NO production to the nuclear compartment where it could influence transcription factor activation [13].
  • First, we demonstrate that expression of KDR into a CHO cell line deficient in heparan sulfate biosynthesis does not allow VEGF165 binding unless heparin is exogenously added during the binding assay [14].

Associations of KDR with chemical compounds

  • Taken together, our results demonstrate that prolonged treatment with troglitazone increases endothelial NO production by at least two independent signaling pathways: PPARgamma-dependent, VEGF-KDR/Flk-1-Akt-mediated eNOS-Ser(1179) phosphorylation and PPARgamma-independent, eNOS-Ser(116) dephosphorylation [5].
  • Stretched-induced KDR expression was not inhibited by AT1 receptor blockade using candesartan [1].
  • This effect is mediated by a signaling cascade initiated by flk-1/KDR activation of c-Src, leading to phospholipase C gamma1 activation, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate formation, release of [Ca(2+)](i) and nitric oxide synthase activation [15].
  • DPMA, an adenosine A2 receptor (A2R) agonist, decreased KDR mRNA in a dose-dependent manner with an EC50 of 5 to 10 nM [7].
  • A1R antagonists, 8-cyclolentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine and 8-phenyltheophylline, did not inhibit the hypoxic response of KDR mRNA at A1R inhibitory concentrations but did inhibit the response at A2R effective doses (P = 0.001) [7].

Physical interactions of KDR

  • In conclusion, our data demonstrate that VEGF binding to the KDR receptor tyrosine kinase results in an increase in KDR receptor gene transcription and protein expression [8].

Regulatory relationships of KDR

  • VEGF-induced KDR expression primarily occurred at the transcriptional level as demonstrated by a luciferase reporter assay system [8].

Other interactions of KDR


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of KDR


  1. Cyclic stretch and hypertension induce retinal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2: potential mechanisms for exacerbation of diabetic retinopathy by hypertension. Suzuma, I., Hata, Y., Clermont, A., Pokras, F., Rook, S.L., Suzuma, K., Feener, E.P., Aiello, L.P. Diabetes (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Increasing endothelial cell specific expression by the use of heterologous hypoxic and cytokine-inducible enhancers. Modlich, U., Pugh, C.W., Bicknell, R. Gene Ther. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor enhances vascular permeability via nitric oxide and prostacyclin. Murohara, T., Horowitz, J.R., Silver, M., Tsurumi, Y., Chen, D., Sullivan, A., Isner, J.M. Circulation (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Angiotensin II potentiates vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenic activity in retinal microcapillary endothelial cells. Otani, A., Takagi, H., Suzuma, K., Honda, Y. Circ. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  5. Nitric oxide production and regulation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation by prolonged treatment with troglitazone: evidence for involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma-dependent and PPARgamma-independent signaling pathways. Cho, D.H., Choi, Y.J., Jo, S.A., Jo, I. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Transactivation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor Flk-1/KDR is involved in sphingosine 1-phosphate-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS). Tanimoto, T., Jin, Z.G., Berk, B.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Hypoxia regulates vascular endothelial growth factor receptor KDR/Flk gene expression through adenosine A2 receptors in retinal capillary endothelial cells. Takagi, H., King, G.L., Ferrara, N., Aiello, L.P. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Homologous up-regulation of KDR/Flk-1 receptor expression by vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro. Shen, B.Q., Lee, D.Y., Gerber, H.P., Keyt, B.A., Ferrara, N., Zioncheck, T.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Vascular endothelial growth factor-dependent down-regulation of Flk-1/KDR involves Cbl-mediated ubiquitination. Consequences on nitric oxide production from endothelial cells. Duval, M., Bédard-Goulet, S., Delisle, C., Gratton, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. VEGF nuclear accumulation correlates with phenotypical changes in endothelial cells. Li, W., Keller, G. J. Cell. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Identification and characterization of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (Flt) in bovine retinal pericytes. Takagi, H., King, G.L., Aiello, L.P. Diabetes (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. VEGF-induced permeability increase is mediated by caveolae. Feng, Y., Venema, V.J., Venema, R.C., Tsai, N., Behzadian, M.A., Caldwell, R.B. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. VEGF induces nuclear translocation of Flk-1/KDR, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and caveolin-1 in vascular endothelial cells. Feng, Y., Venema, V.J., Venema, R.C., Tsai, N., Caldwell, R.B. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of a heparin binding peptide on the extracellular domain of the KDR VEGF receptor. Dougher, A.M., Wasserstrom, H., Torley, L., Shridaran, L., Westdock, P., Hileman, R.E., Fromm, J.R., Anderberg, R., Lyman, S., Linhardt, R.J., Kaplan, J., Terman, B.I. Growth Factors (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Vascular endothelial growth factor signals endothelial cell production of nitric oxide and prostacyclin through flk-1/KDR activation of c-Src. He, H., Venema, V.J., Gu, X., Venema, R.C., Marrero, M.B., Caldwell, R.B. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
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