The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

AMH  -  anti-Mullerian hormone

Bos taurus

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of AMH

  • The monoclonal antibody purified from ascites fluid abolished anti-Müllerian activity of partially purified AMH, whether or not the immune complex was removed from solution by a second, antimouse immunoglobulin antibody [1].
  • It is suggested that the similarity between the immunogenic characteristics of bovine, ovine and caprine AMH is in some way related to the fact that AMH in these species is disseminated in the blood stream and may produce freemartinism [2].
  • A significant cytotoxicity index was obtained when human ovarian cancer cells in a microcytotoxicity assay were exposed during the S (DNA-synthesizing) phase of the cell cycle to purified fractions of testis exhibiting high Müllerian inhibiting substance bioactivity [3].
  • Forty-three primary human tumor explants were also examined in human tumor colony forming assays, gel-supported primary culture assays, and subrenal capsule assays. rHu-MIS significantly inhibited the growth of five of these tumors including four ovarian and one small cell lung cancer explant [4].
  • Anti-Müllerian hormone is not cytotoxic to human endometrial cancer in tissue culture [5].

High impact information on AMH


Chemical compound and disease context of AMH

  • Whereas no effect was detected in the younger gonads, some structural changes were observed in bovine and 21-day-old rat ovaries when cultured for 5 days with Daudi and male teratoma supernatants, but there was no synthesis of testosterone or MIS [10].

Biological context of AMH

  • Taken together, our results suggest that AMH plays a pivotal role in both morphological and endocrine gonadal sex differentiation [9].
  • Hybridomas were screened for specific antibody production by double antibody precipitation of labeled AMH, which was obtained by incubating fetal calf testes in the presence of tritiated fucose and submitting the medium to the standard procedure of purification [1].
  • A break or fusion between AMH and CSF2 in an ancestral chromosome is suggested to account for the current arrangement of these homologous segments in the human and bovine genomes [11].
  • This may help to elucidate whether persistence of Müllerian ducts results from lack of testicular production of AMH or from peripheral resistance of the Müllerian primordia to the hormone [12].
  • In contrast, in fetal rat ovaries, AMH did not trigger the testosterone production which occurs in freemartin gonads at an early stage of the gestation [13].

Anatomical context of AMH

  • These data strongly suggest that AMH is the testicular factor responsible for triggering the morphological abnormalities of freemartin gonads [14].
  • In cultures initiated at 14 days p.c. and maintained 3 to 10 days, AMH consistently induced a characteristic 'freemartin effect', namely reduction of gonadal volume, germ cell depletion and differentiation, in the gonadal blastema, of epithelial cells with large clear cytoplasm linked by interdigitations, resembling rat fetal Sertoli cells [14].
  • Booster injections were given at Day 8 of pregnancy to ensure a high titer of anti-AMH antibodies at the time the rabbit fetal testis begins to produce AMH [15].
  • These findings indicate that adult mammalian granulosa cells are capable of producing immunoreactive and bioactive AMH at a rate apparently similar to that already demonstrated for mature Sertoli cells and add yet another item to the homologies reported between male and female somatic gonadal cells [16].
  • In spite of the extremely low concentration of AMH in the preparation used for immunization, three hybridomas gave positive results in the screening assay [1].

Associations of AMH with chemical compounds

  • We have isolated the bovine and human genes for Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS), a testicular glycoprotein that causes regression of the Müllerian duct during development of the male embryo [6].
  • Ovine fetal ovaries exposed to AMH release testosterone instead of estradiol, an endocrine sex reversal due to suppression of aromatase activity [9].
  • Under the same in vitro conditions, AMH treatment did not affect cyclic AMP-stimulated fetal rat testicular aromatase activity [17].
  • Although the majority of the resulting hybridomas resembled those obtained previously insofar as they recognized only bovine, ovine and caprine AMH, four others, all immunoglobulin Ms, were directed against an epitope shared with AMH of other species, namely rabbit, pig and cat [2].
  • Theophylline at 1.0 mM inhibited the action of the MIS fraction [18].

Other interactions of AMH


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of AMH


  1. A monoclonal antibody against bovine anti-Müllerian hormone. Vigier, B., Picard, J.Y., Josso, N. Endocrinology (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Monoclonal antibodies raised against bovine anti-müllerian hormone: bovine, ovine, and caprine hormones share a set of identical epitopes. Legeai, L., Vigier, B., Tran, D., Picard, J.Y., Josso, N. Biol. Reprod. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Müllerian duct regression in the embryo correlated with cytotoxic activity against human ovarian cancer. Donahoe, P.K., Swann, D.A., Hayashi, A., Sullivan, M.D. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  4. Minimal antiproliferative effect of recombinant müllerian inhibiting substance on gynecological tumor cell lines and tumor explants. Wallen, J.W., Cate, R.L., Kiefer, D.M., Riemen, M.W., Martinez, D., Hoffman, R.M., Donahoe, P.K., Von Hoff, D.D., Pepinsky, B., Oliff, A. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Anti-Müllerian hormone is not cytotoxic to human endometrial cancer in tissue culture. Rosenwaks, Z., Liu, H.C., Picard, J.Y., Josso, N. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Isolation of the bovine and human genes for Müllerian inhibiting substance and expression of the human gene in animal cells. Cate, R.L., Mattaliano, R.J., Hession, C., Tizard, R., Farber, N.M., Cheung, A., Ninfa, E.G., Frey, A.Z., Gash, D.J., Chow, E.P. Cell (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. Mullerian inhibiting substance fractionation by dye affinity chromatography. Budzik, G.P., Powell, S.M., Kamagata, S., Donahoe, P.K. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Enhanced purification of Mullerian inhibiting substance by lectin affinity chromatography. Budzik, G.P., Swann, D.A., Hayashi, A., Donahoe, P.K. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  9. Anti-Müllerian hormone produces endocrine sex reversal of fetal ovaries. Vigier, B., Forest, M.G., Eychenne, B., Bézard, J., Garrigou, O., Robel, P., Josso, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Effects of H--Y antigen on morphologic and endocrine differentiation of gonads in mammals. Benhaim, A., Gangnerau, M.N., Bettane-Casanova, M., Fellous, M., Picon, R. Differentiation (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. A genetic map of bovine chromosome 7 with an interspecific hybrid backcross panel. Gao, Q., Womack, J.E. Mamm. Genome (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunocytochemical detection of anti-müllerian hormone in Sertoli cells of various mammalian species including human. Tran, D., Picard, J.Y., Campargue, J., Josso, N. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Anti-müllerian hormone and freemartinism: inhibition of germ cell development and induction of seminiferous cord-like structures in rat fetal ovaries exposed in vitro to purified bovine AMH. Vigier, B., Watrin, F., Magre, S., Tran, D., Garrigou, O., Forest, M.G., Josso, N. Reproduction, nutrition, development. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Purified bovine AMH induces a characteristic freemartin effect in fetal rat prospective ovaries exposed to it in vitro. Vigier, B., Watrin, F., Magre, S., Tran, D., Josso, N. Development (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Persistence of müllerian ducts in male rabbits passively immunized against bovine anti-müllerian hormone during fetal life. Tran, D., Picard, J.Y., Vigier, B., Berger, R., Josso, N. Dev. Biol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Production of anti-Müllerian hormone: another homology between Sertoli and granulosa cells. Vigier, B., Picard, J.Y., Tran, D., Legeai, L., Josso, N. Endocrinology (1984) [Pubmed]
  17. A quantitative and interspecific test for biological activity of anti-müllerian hormone: the fetal ovary aromatase assay. di Clemente, N., Ghaffari, S., Pepinsky, R.B., Pieau, C., Josso, N., Cate, R.L., Vigier, B. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate modulation of mullerian duct regression. Ikawa, H., Hutson, J.M., Budzik, G.P., Donahoe, P.K. Endocrinology (1984) [Pubmed]
  19. Somatic cell mapping of the genes for anti-müllerian hormone and osteonectin in cattle: identification of a new bovine syntenic group. Rogers, D.S., Gallagher, D.S., Womack, J.E. Genomics (1991) [Pubmed]
  20. Immunocytochemical localization of Mullerian inhibiting substance in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in Sertoli cells of the neonatal calf testis using a monoclonal antibody. Hayashi, M., Shima, H., Hayashi, K., Trelstad, R.L., Donahoe, P.K. J. Histochem. Cytochem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  21. Biosynthesis of labelled anti-müllerian hormone by fetal testes: evidence for the glycoprotein nature of the hormone and for its disulfide-bonded structure. Picard, J.Y., Tran, D., Josso, N. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1978) [Pubmed]
  22. Purification of testicular anti-Müllerian hormone allowing direct visualization of the pure glycoprotein and determination of yield and purification factor. Picard, J.Y., Josso, N. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1984) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities