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Gene Review

Amh  -  anti-Mullerian hormone

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: AMH, Anti-Muellerian hormone, MIS, Muellerian-inhibiting factor, Muellerian-inhibiting substance
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Disease relevance of Amh


High impact information on Amh


Biological context of Amh


Anatomical context of Amh

  • Müllerian inhibiting substance regulates its receptor/SMAD signaling and causes mesenchymal transition of the coelomic epithelial cells early in Müllerian duct regression [7].
  • The expression levels of both MIS mRNA and protein in the granulosa cells of small growing follicles in the ovary at P6 were higher in the EB-treated rats than in the controls [9].
  • The rat gene should provide a good model for studying transcriptional regulation of MIS in the testis and ovary [8].
  • Following EDS ablation of differentiated Leydig cells in young adult rats, recombinant MIS or vehicle was delivered by intratesticular injection for 4 days (Days 11-14 after EDS) [1].
  • Modulation of endogenous GATA-4 activity reveals its dual contribution to Müllerian inhibiting substance gene transcription in Sertoli cells [10].

Associations of Amh with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Amh


Other interactions of Amh


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Amh

  • On Days 15 and 35 after EDS (1 and 21 days post-MIS injections), endocrine function was assessed and testes were collected for stereology, immunohistochemistry, and assessment of proliferation and steroidogenesis [1].
  • In addition to the morphological masculinization, functional masculinization was obtained since the ovaries produced the anti-Müllerian hormone as shown by bioassay and immunohistochemical procedures [15].
  • RT-PCR analysis showed that AMH reduced aromatase activity by decreasing the amount of aromatase messenger RNA [16].
  • Testicular fragments of 17-day fetuses and 6-day-old pups showed an increase relative to controls in Müllerian inhibiting substance activity in a graded organ culture bioassay system [17].
  • In an effort to clone the receptor for Mullerian inhibiting substance, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, oligonucleotide primers designed from conserved regions of these receptors' kinase domains were used for PCR amplification of fetal rat urogenital ridge cDNA [18].


  1. Müllerian-inhibiting substance inhibits rat Leydig cell regeneration after ethylene dimethanesulphonate ablation. Salva, A., Hardy, M.P., Wu, X.F., Sottas, C.M., MacLaughlin, D.T., Donahoe, P.K., Lee, M.M. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Pituitary hormones inhibit the function and differentiation of fetal Sertoli cells. Migrenne, S., Racine, C., Guillou, F., Habert, R. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Thyroid hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone regulate Müllerian-inhibiting substance messenger ribonucleic acid expression in cultured neonatal rat Sertoli cells. Arambepola, N.K., Bunick, D., Cooke, P.S. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Arterial hypertension elicited either by lesions or by electrical stimulations of the rostral hypothalamus in the rat. Gauthier, P., Reis, D.J., Nathan, M.A. Brain Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Phosphorylation events during Müllerian duct regression. Hutson, J.M., Fallat, M.E., Kamagata, S., Donahoe, P.K., Budzik, G.P. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Transcriptional regulation of the rat Müllerian inhibiting substance type II receptor in rodent Leydig cells. Teixeira, J., Kehas, D.J., Antun, R., Donahoe, P.K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Müllerian inhibiting substance regulates its receptor/SMAD signaling and causes mesenchymal transition of the coelomic epithelial cells early in Müllerian duct regression. Zhan, Y., Fujino, A., MacLaughlin, D.T., Manganaro, T.F., Szotek, P.P., Arango, N.A., Teixeira, J., Donahoe, P.K. Development (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Isolation of the rat gene for Mullerian inhibiting substance. Haqq, C., Lee, M.M., Tizard, R., Wysk, M., DeMarinis, J., Donahoe, P.K., Cate, R.L. Genomics (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Increased expression of Müllerian-inhibiting substance correlates with inhibition of follicular growth in the developing ovary of rats treated with E2 benzoate. Ikeda, Y., Nagai, A., Ikeda, M.A., Hayashi, S. Endocrinology (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Modulation of endogenous GATA-4 activity reveals its dual contribution to Müllerian inhibiting substance gene transcription in Sertoli cells. Tremblay, J.J., Robert, N.M., Viger, R.S. Mol. Endocrinol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. Mullerian inhibiting substance ontogeny and its modulation by follicle-stimulating hormone in the rat testes. Kuroda, T., Lee, M.M., Haqq, C.M., Powell, D.M., Manganaro, T.F., Donahoe, P.K. Endocrinology (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Activin-attenuated expression of transcripts encoding granulosa cell-derived insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 4 and 5 in the rat: a putative antiatretic effect. Choi, D., Rohan, R.M., Rosenfeld, R.G., Matsumoto, T., Gargosky, S.E., Adashi, E.Y. Biol. Reprod. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Pattern of orexin expression and direct biological actions of orexin-a in rat testis. Barreiro, M.L., Pineda, R., Gaytan, F., Archanco, M., Burrell, M.A., Castellano, J.M., Hakovirta, H., Nurmio, M., Pinilla, L., Aguilar, E., Toppari, J., Dieguez, C., Tena-Sempere, M. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Follicular cells acquire sertoli cell characteristics after oocyte loss. Guigon, C.J., Coudouel, N., Mazaud-Guittot, S., Forest, M.G., Magre, S. Endocrinology (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Masculinizing effect of testes on developing rat ovaries in organ culture. Charpentier, G., Magre, S. Development (1990) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of anti-Mullerian hormone on Sertoli and Leydig cell functions in fetal and immature rats. Rouiller-Fabre, V., Carmona, S., Merhi, R.A., Cate, R., Habert, R., Vigier, B. Endocrinology (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Increased secretion of Müllerian inhibiting substance after immunological blockade of endogenous luteinizing hormone releasing hormone in the rat. Bercu, B.B., Morikawa, Y., Jackson, I.M., Donahoe, P.K. Pediatr. Res. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Developmental expression of four novel serine/threonine kinase receptors homologous to the activin/transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor family. He, W.W., Gustafson, M.L., Hirobe, S., Donahoe, P.K. Dev. Dyn. (1993) [Pubmed]
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