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Gene Review

DES  -  desmin

Bos taurus

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Disease relevance of DES

  • We have investigated the expression, using immunohistochemical and Western blot methods, of some cytoskeletal proteins including desmin, vimentin, actin, alpha-actinin, and ubiquitin in hereditary myopathy of the diaphragmatic muscles in Holstein-Friesian cattle (the histochemical and electron microscopical aspects have been previously reported) [1].
  • We assayed antibodies against desmin, a cytoskeletal muscle protein, in 18 patients with acute infectious myopericarditis (AIM), in 24 patients with acute uncomplicated infections, in ten patients with acute myocardial infarction, and in 68 blood donors by an immunoenzymatic assay using purified desmin from Purkinje fibers of cow heart [2].
  • Neoplastic cells showing intense staining for desmin, vimentin and proliferating cell nuclear antigen irrespective of their size differed from those in an embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma that exhibited a wide spectrum of differentiation, reminiscent of normal skeletal myogenesis [3].

High impact information on DES

  • Smooth muscle cells of the digestive, respiratory, and urogenital tracts contain desmin as their major, if not exclusive, intermediate-size filament constituent and also show a predominance of gamma-type smooth muscle actin [4].
  • Immunocytochemical studies with antibodies to smooth muscle specific actin, desmin, and vimentin demonstrated that cells within these foci, as well as tropoelastin mRNA-positive cells, were SMC [5].
  • In contrast, both variants of desmin, synemin, caldesmon, and 5 cytosolic proteins are phosphorylated at varying rates and remain phosphorylated for the duration of carbachol action [6].
  • The distribution of mass in heteropolymer intermediate filaments assembled in vitro. Stem analysis of vimentin/desmin and bovine epidermal keratin [7].
  • We conclude that GFA protein and desmin are distinct with respect to primary structure, but probably represent two of the more closely related classes of intermediate filament proteins [8].

Biological context of DES

  • This difference was not present if the time from first ovulation to conception was compared (50.5+/-5.3 versus 43.5+/-9.3 days, CON versus DES; P>0.05) [9].
  • Using specific antibodies, we analyzed the expression of smooth muscle (SM) contractile and cytoskeletal proteins (alpha-SM-actin, SM myosin, calponin, desmin, and meta-vinculin) in the main pulmonary artery of fetal (60 to 270 days of gestation), neonatal, and adult animals [10].
  • In contrast, forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator and a potent smooth muscle relaxant, induces the phosphorylation protein 3 and one variant of desmin [6].
  • In order to further examine the relationship between satellite cell differentiation and desmin expression, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was added to culture medium at the time of plating to inhibit differentiation [11].
  • Application of desmin staining to rat satellite cell growth assays indicated that rat satellite cells cultured in serum-containing medium were contaminated with fibroblasts at levels that ranged from approximately 5% in 24 hr cultures to 15% in mature cultures [11].

Anatomical context of DES


Associations of DES with chemical compounds

  • Comparison of four levels of protein supplementation with and without oral DES on reproductive traits and testosterone of bulls [12].
  • A number of DES cows showed a low and transient rise in plasma progesterone around 21 days after implant removal [9].
  • It was insensitive to DES and ICI 182780, dependent on PKC and PLC, blocked by tamoxifen and it did not require gene transcription or translation [13].
  • By sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis, GFA protein is about 5,000 daltons smaller than desmin [8].
  • Bovine epidermal keratin IF, which are obligate heteropolymers, were thus characterized and compared with facultative heteropolymers of vimentin and desmin and with earlier observations of homopolymer vimentin IF [7].

Other interactions of DES


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of DES


  1. Immunohistochemical study of some cytoskeletal proteins in hereditary myopathy of the diaphragmatic muscles in Holstein-Friesian cattle. Furuoka, H., Murakami, A., Tsuchihashi, M., Yokota, H., Doi, T., Kobayashi, Y., Matsui, T., Horiuchi, M., Taniyama, H. Acta Neuropathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Desmin antibodies in acute infectious myopericarditis. Kurki, P., Karjalainen, J., Hautanen, A., Virtanen, I. APMIS (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma in a cow. Aoyagi, T., Saruta, K., Asahi, I., Hojo, H., Shibahara, T., Kadota, K. J. Vet. Med. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Vascular smooth muscle cells differ from other smooth muscle cells: predominance of vimentin filaments and a specific alpha-type actin. Gabbiani, G., Schmid, E., Winter, S., Chaponnier, C., de Ckhastonay, C., Vandekerckhove, J., Weber, K., Franke, W.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Regional heterogeneity of elastin and collagen gene expression in intralobar arteries in response to hypoxic pulmonary hypertension as demonstrated by in situ hybridization. Prosser, I.W., Stenmark, K.R., Suthar, M., Crouch, E.C., Mecham, R.P., Parks, W.C. Am. J. Pathol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Carbachol-induced protein phosphorylation changes in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Park, S., Rasmussen, H. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  7. The distribution of mass in heteropolymer intermediate filaments assembled in vitro. Stem analysis of vimentin/desmin and bovine epidermal keratin. Steven, A.C., Hainfeld, J.F., Trus, B.L., Wall, J.S., Steinert, P.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  8. Purified glial fibrillary acidic protein and desmin are distinct intermediate filament proteins exhibiting similar properties. Rueger, D.C., Gardner, E.E., Der Simonian, H., Dahl, D., Bignami, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  9. Reproductive responses of early postpartum dairy cattle to continuous treatment with a GnRH agonist (deslorelin) for 28 days to delay the resumption of ovulation. Padula, A.M., Macmillan, K.L. Anim. Reprod. Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Multiple phenotypically distinct smooth muscle cell populations exist in the adult and developing bovine pulmonary arterial media in vivo. Frid, M.G., Moiseeva, E.P., Stenmark, K.R. Circ. Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Desmin is present in proliferating rat muscle satellite cells but not in bovine muscle satellite cells. Allen, R.E., Rankin, L.L., Greene, E.A., Boxhorn, L.K., Johnson, S.E., Taylor, R.G., Pierce, P.R. J. Cell. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Comparison of four levels of protein supplementation with and without oral DES on reproductive traits and testosterone of bulls. Martin, T.G., Erb, R.E., Singleton, W.L., Owens, F.H. J. Anim. Sci. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Sex-specific regulation of growth plate chondrocytes by estrogen is via multiple MAP kinase signaling pathways. McMillan, J., Fatehi-Sedeh, S., Sylvia, V.L., Bingham, V., Zhong, M., Boyan, B.D., Schwartz, Z. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of electrical stimulation and postmortem storage on changes in titin, nebulin, desmin, troponin-T, and muscle ultrastructure in Bos indicus crossbred cattle. Ho, C.Y., Stromer, M.H., Rouse, G., Robson, R.M. J. Anim. Sci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  15. Genetic variability of foetal bovine myoblasts in primary culture. Duris, M.P., Renand, G., Picard, B. Histochem. J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype in long-term culture. Absher, M., Woodcock-Mitchell, J., Mitchell, J., Baldor, L., Low, R., Warshaw, D. In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Application of diethylstilbestrol dipropionate in bulls. I. Excretion of residues in urine and faeces and histological and immunohistochemical changes in the prostate. Jansen, E.H., Stephany, R.W., Vos, J.G., Ruitenberg, E.J., Benraad, T.J., de Boer, F., de Ruig, W.G., Weijman, J., Schmidt, N.A. The Veterinary quarterly. (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Monoclonal antibody to desmin purified from cow Purkinje fibers reveals a cell-type specific determinant. Virtanen, I., Närvänen, O., Thornell, L.E. FEBS Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  19. Interaction of smooth muscle calponin and desmin. Wang, P., Gusev, N.B. FEBS Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
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