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Gene Review

Des  -  desmin

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Desmin
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Disease relevance of Des

  • Mutations in desmin have been associated with a subset of human myopathies [1].
  • When expressed in cultured rat neonatal cardiac myocytes via adenovirus infection, these mutant proteins disrupted the endogenous desmin filament to an extent that correlated with their defects in in vitro assembly properties [1].
  • Microtubules and desmin filaments during onset of heart hypertrophy in rat: a double immunoelectron microscope study [2].
  • Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that desmin-positive cells and alpha-sm-actin-positive cells were increased in the hepatic fibrosis, whereas neither cells were seen in livers of DMN-treated rats given dHGF [3].
  • At the age of 11-21 weeks, all male mice carrying both genetic lesions developed embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas expressing desmin, myosin, and insulin-like growth factor-II, in the genitourinary tract [4].

High impact information on Des


Chemical compound and disease context of Des


Biological context of Des


Anatomical context of Des

  • Immunohistochemical localization of desmin was restricted to the theca externa [14].
  • Acute effects of desmin mutations on cytoskeletal and cellular integrity in cardiac myocytes [1].
  • Northern analysis of RNA from different organs reveals that, as expected, desmin is expressed in striated, heart and smooth muscle cells containing tissues; among other tissues, lung displays relatively high expression levels, while desmin mRNA is barely detectable in spleen, kidney and liver [15].
  • Desmin is a differentiation marker for all types of muscle cells [15].
  • Both squash preparations and cultured cells from adult rat seminiferous tubules revealed distinct cell populations positive for desmin [19].

Associations of Des with chemical compounds


Enzymatic interactions of Des


Co-localisations of Des


Regulatory relationships of Des


Other interactions of Des

  • The present study demonstrated that heparin recovered Ang receptors and differentiation markers, such as desmin, SM-22 and smooth muscle alpha-actin in VSMCs at the ninth passage [29].
  • The analysis of neural agrin expression and myogenic desmin, myogenin, MyoD, Trisk 51, and nicotinic-acetycholine receptor (nACh-receptor) epsilon-subunit expression revealed the differentiation of the myoblasts to myofibers [30].
  • We applied monoclonal antibodies recognizing desmin, sm-alpha-actin and smoothelin, a novel marker specific for the differentiated phenotype of SMC [31].
  • Northern blot analysis showed that dHGF suppressed the increase of messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of procollagen alpha 2(I), alpha l(III), alpha 1(IV), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta1), desmin (a marker of hepatic lipocytes), and alpha-smooth muscle (sm)-actin (a marker of activated hepatic lipocytes) [3].
  • At 48 hours, we observed a collapse of PCs in the centrilobular zone, coinciding with strongly positive staining for IGF-II/M6P receptor in fat-storing cells (FSCs), identified by dual IGF-II/M6P receptor and desmin immunostaining [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Des


  1. Acute effects of desmin mutations on cytoskeletal and cellular integrity in cardiac myocytes. Haubold, K., Herrmann, H., Langer, S.J., Evans, R.M., Leinwand, L.A., Klymkowsky, M.W. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Microtubules and desmin filaments during onset of heart hypertrophy in rat: a double immunoelectron microscope study. Watkins, S.C., Samuel, J.L., Marotte, F., Bertier-Savalle, B., Rappaport, L. Circ. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  3. Antifibrogenic effect of a deletion variant of hepatocyte growth factor on liver fibrosis in rats. Yasuda, H., Imai, E., Shiota, A., Fujise, N., Morinaga, T., Higashio, K. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Development of rhabdomyosarcoma in HER-2/neu transgenic p53 mutant mice. Nanni, P., Nicoletti, G., De Giovanni, C., Croci, S., Astolfi, A., Landuzzi, L., Di Carlo, E., Iezzi, M., Musiani, P., Lollini, P.L. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Expression of smooth muscle cell phenotype by rat mesangial cells in immune complex nephritis. Alpha-smooth muscle actin is a marker of mesangial cell proliferation. Johnson, R.J., Iida, H., Alpers, C.E., Majesky, M.W., Schwartz, S.M., Pritzi, P., Gordon, K., Gown, A.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Rat liver myofibroblasts and hepatic stellate cells: different cell populations of the fibroblast lineage with fibrogenic potential. Knittel, T., Kobold, D., Saile, B., Grundmann, A., Neubauer, K., Piscaglia, F., Ramadori, G. Gastroenterology (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Presence of a protein immunologically related to lamin B in the postsynaptic membrane of Torpedo marmorata electrocyte. Cartaud, A., Courvalin, J.C., Ludosky, M.A., Cartaud, J. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Specific attachment of desmin filaments to desmosomal plaques in cardiac myocytes. Kartenbeck, J., Franke, W.W., Moser, J.G., Stoffels, U. EMBO J. (1983) [Pubmed]
  9. Inhibition of hepatic stellate cell proliferation and activation by the semisynthetic analogue of fumagillin TNP-470 in rats. Wang, Y.Q., Ikeda, K., Ikebe, T., Hirakawa, K., Sowa, M., Nakatani, K., Kawada, N., Kaneda, K. Hepatology (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Class VI intermediate filament protein nestin is induced during activation of rat hepatic stellate cells. Niki, T., Pekny, M., Hellemans, K., Bleser, P.D., Berg, K.V., Vaeyens, F., Quartier, E., Schuit, F., Geerts, A. Hepatology (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Activation of pancreatic stellate cells in human and experimental pancreatic fibrosis. Haber, P.S., Keogh, G.W., Apte, M.V., Moran, C.S., Stewart, N.L., Crawford, D.H., Pirola, R.C., McCaughan, G.W., Ramm, G.A., Wilson, J.S. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. Variable expression of desmin in rat glomerular epithelial cells. Yaoita, E., Kawasaki, K., Yamamoto, T., Kihara, I. Am. J. Pathol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Transdifferentiation of cultured tubular cells induced by hypoxia. Manotham, K., Tanaka, T., Matsumoto, M., Ohse, T., Inagi, R., Miyata, T., Kurokawa, K., Fujita, T., Ingelfinger, J.R., Nangaku, M. Kidney Int. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Microscopic Characterization of Follicular Structures in Letrozole-induced Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome in the Rat. Baravalle, C., Salvetti, N.R., Mira, G.A., Pezzone, N., Ortega, H.H. Arch. Med. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Rat desmin gene structure and expression. van Groningen, J.J., Bloemers, H.P., Swart, G.W. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) [Pubmed]
  16. Caspase proteolysis of desmin produces a dominant-negative inhibitor of intermediate filaments and promotes apoptosis. Chen, F., Chang, R., Trivedi, M., Capetanaki, Y., Cryns, V.L. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. A type III intermediate filament gene is expressed in mature neurons. Parysek, L.M., Chisholm, R.L., Ley, C.A., Goldman, R.D. Neuron (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells and the regulation of protein kinase C-alpha. Haller, H., Lindschau, C., Quass, P., Distler, A., Luft, F.C. Circ. Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. Peritubular myoid cells of human and rat testis are smooth muscle cells that contain desmin-type intermediate filaments. Virtanen, I., Kallajoki, M., Närvänen, O., Paranko, J., Thornell, L.E., Miettinen, M., Lehto, V.P. Anat. Rec. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Streptomycin and EDTA decrease the number of desmin-negative fibers following stretch injury. Willems, M.E., Stauber, W.T. Muscle Nerve (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Culture of renal arteriolar smooth muscle cells. Mitogenic responses to angiotensin II. Dubey, R.K., Roy, A., Overbeck, H.W. Circ. Res. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. Characterization of desmin-positive rat liver sinusoidal cells. Tsutsumi, M., Takada, A., Takase, S. Hepatology (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Interferon gamma decreases hepatic stellate cell activation and extracellular matrix deposition in rat liver fibrosis. Baroni, G.S., D'Ambrosio, L., Curto, P., Casini, A., Mancini, R., Jezequel, A.M., Benedetti, A. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Comparison of glial fibrillary acidic protein and desmin staining in normal and CCl4-induced fibrotic rat livers. Niki, T., De Bleser, P.J., Xu, G., Van Den Berg, K., Wisse, E., Geerts, A. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. p21-activated kinase PAK phosphorylates desmin at sites different from those for Rho-associated kinase. Ohtakara, K., Inada, H., Goto, H., Taki, W., Manser, E., Lim, L., Izawa, I., Inagaki, M. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Plectin is a linker of intermediate filaments to Z-discs in skeletal muscle fibers. Hijikata, T., Murakami, T., Imamura, M., Fujimaki, N., Ishikawa, H. J. Cell. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. SV40 T antigen inhibits expression of MyoD and myogenin, up-regulates Myf-5, but does not affect early expression of desmin or alpha 7 integrin during muscle development. Haider, S.R., Wang, W., Kaufman, S.J. Exp. Cell Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  28. Sequential changes of extracellular matrix and proliferation of Ito cells with enhanced expression of desmin and actin in focal hepatic injury. Ogawa, K., Suzuki, J., Mukai, H., Mori, M. Am. J. Pathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  29. Heparin recovers AT1 receptor and its intracellular signal transduction in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. Hashimoto, T., Kihara, M., Sato, K., Imai, N., Tanaka, Y., Sakai, M., Tamura, K., Hirawa, N., Toya, Y., Kitamura, H., Umemura, S. FEBS Lett. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Expression of Trisk 51, agrin and nicotinic-acetycholine receptor epsilon-subunit during muscle development in a novel three-dimensional muscle-neuronal co-culture system. Bach, A.D., Beier, J.P., Stark, G.B. Cell Tissue Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Smoothelin is an indicator of reversible phenotype modulation of smooth muscle cells in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries. Bär, H., Wende, P., Watson, L., Denger, S., van Eys, G., Kreuzer, J., Jahn, L. Basic Res. Cardiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. Insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate-receptor expression in liver and serum during acute CCl4 intoxication in the rat. De Bleser, P.J., Scott, C.D., Niki, T., Xu, G., Wisse, E., Geerts, A. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  33. Structural and functional characterization of bladder smooth muscle in fetal rats with retinoic acid-induced myelomeningocele. Danzer, E., Kiddoo, D.A., Redden, R.A., Robinson, L., Radu, A., Zderic, S.A., Doolin, E.J., Adzick, N.S., Flake, A.W. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  34. Coexpression of the collagen-binding stress protein HSP47 gene and the alpha 1(I) and alpha 1(III) collagen genes in carbon tetrachloride-induced rat liver fibrosis. Masuda, H., Fukumoto, M., Hirayoshi, K., Nagata, K. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Enhanced hepatic collagen type I mRNA expression into fat-storing cells in a rodent model of hemochromatosis. Pietrangelo, A., Gualdi, R., Casalgrandi, G., Geerts, A., De Bleser, P., Montosi, G., Ventura, E. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
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