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Gene Review

VCAM1  -  vascular cell adhesion molecule 1

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Disease relevance of VCAM1

  • The role of the very late antigen-4 and its counterligand vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune neuritis of the Lewis rat [1].
  • These data indicate that VCAM-1-mediated adhesion processes are involved in immune-mediated and ischemic diseases of the nervous system but not in T cell-independent macrophage recruitment during Wallerian degeneration [2].
  • In addition, VCAM-1 mRNA was detected in the border zone around photochemically induced cerebral infarcts which is the predeliction site of T cell infiltration and expression of immune activation markers during the first week after ischemia [2].
  • In the acute phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and neuritis VCAM-1 mRNA was expressed not only on the luminal surface of inflamed vessels but also in perivascular cells suggesting a functional role of VCAM-1 in both endothelial adhesion and local restimulation of autoantigen-specific T cells [2].
  • Abnormal expression of VCAM-1 has been demonstrated to correlate with the malignant progression of gastric tumors, but the molecular mechanism underlying the VCAM-1-dependent metastasis has been rarely investigated [3].

High impact information on VCAM1


Chemical compound and disease context of VCAM1


Biological context of VCAM1

  • Upstream of the core promoter, the VCAM1 5' flanking sequence contained a negative regulatory activity [4].
  • Transfection of endothelial cells with a functional VCAM-1 promoter construct showed that E(2) inhibited LPS-induced VCAM-1 gene transcription more potently than did Dex [5].
  • These experiments demonstrate the critical role of VLA-4 in the pathogenesis of EAN and show that upregulation of VCAM-1 expression contributes, at least in part, to the progression of the disease in the early stages [1].
  • Markers of inflammation, especially MHC-II, and cell adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1, are not expressed on the luminal surface of the barrier under resting conditions [6].
  • In summary, different stimuli produced similar expression kinetics of VCAM-1 surface protein but different kinetics of ICAM-1 mRNA expression [7].

Anatomical context of VCAM1

  • On immunohistochemical examination, VCAM-1 in sciatic nerve was found to be upregulated at early stages of EAN (days 3-5 after T-cell transfer), whilst no expression was noted in healthy controls [1].
  • Blockade of VCAM-1 also significantly ameliorated the disease course and diminished T-cell infiltration in sciatic nerve, but to a lesser degree [1].
  • Rottlerin, a protein kinase C (PKC)-delta inhibitor, also blocked beta(2)-integrin adhesion of eosinophils caused by IL-5, whereas beta(1) adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 was not affected [8].
  • VCAM-1 mRNA was absent from the center of the infarcts as well as axotomized central and peripheral nerves undergoing Wallerian degeneration [2].
  • In contrast to MAdCAM-1, phase-dependent protein expression of VCAM-1 was detected in both mammary alveolar tissues and the supramammary lymph nodes, with the highest expression observed in colostral phase cows [9].

Associations of VCAM1 with chemical compounds


Other interactions of VCAM1

  • E. bovis infection upregulated the transcription of genes encoding for P-selectin, E-selectin, vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) [12].
  • Moreover, the expression of VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 was lower by 11-14% in both ion dose groups [13].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of VCAM1

  • Intravenous injection of 500 microg anti-VCAM-1 mAb (5F10) or a corresponding isotype control was given in AT-EAN 4 h before disease induction, and at days 2, 4 and 6 [1].
  • In this study we used nonradioactive in situ hybridization for the cellular localization of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) mRNA in immune-mediated, ischemic and degenerative diseases of the rat nervous system [2].
  • Western blot analysis and luciferase activity assay showed that anthocyanins inhibited TNF-alpha-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, and cyclooxygenase-2 levels, which is through NF-kappaB-dependent pathway [14].
  • Semiquantitative Realtime RT-PCR showed upregulated transcription of the E- and P-selectin genes in BUVECs within 1h p.i. and of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 genes within 2h p.i. Maximum transcript levels were observed at 4-6h p.i.; the 24h p.i. gene transcription had declined to control levels [15].


  1. The role of the very late antigen-4 and its counterligand vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune neuritis of the Lewis rat. Enders, U., Lobb, R., Pepinsky, R.B., Hartung, H.P., Toyka, K.V., Gold, R. Brain (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mRNA is expressed in immune-mediated and ischemic injury of the rat nervous system. Jander, S., Pohl, J., Gillen, C., Schroeter, M., Stoll, G. J. Neuroimmunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Caveolin-1 is associated with VCAM-1 dependent adhesion of gastric cancer cells to endothelial cells. Shin, J., Kim, J., Ryu, B., Chi, S.G., Park, H. Cell. Physiol. Biochem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Functional analysis of the human vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 promoter. Neish, A.S., Williams, A.J., Palmer, H.J., Whitley, M.Z., Collins, T. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Estrogens and glucocorticoids inhibit endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression by different transcriptional mechanisms. Simoncini, T., Maffei, S., Basta, G., Barsacchi, G., Genazzani, A.R., Liao, J.K., De Caterina, R. Circ. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of an in vitro rhesus macaque blood-brain barrier. MacLean, A.G., Orandle, M.S., MacKey, J., Williams, K.C., Alvarez, X., Lackner, A.A. J. Neuroimmunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Regulation of bovine intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) on cultured aortic endothelial cells. Van Kampen, C., Mallard, B.A. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of interleukin-5-induced beta2-integrin adhesion of human eosinophils by phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Sano, M., Leff, A.R., Myou, S., Boetticher, E., Meliton, A.Y., Learoyd, J., Lambertino, A.T., Munoz, N.M., Zhu, X. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Adhesion molecule expression in the bovine mammary gland. Hodgkinson, A.J., Carpenter, E.A., Smith, C.S., Molan, P.C., Prosser, C.G. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Long-term exposure to high glucose up-regulates VCAM-induced endothelial cell adhesiveness to PBMC. Esposito, C., Fasoli, G., Plati, A.R., Bellotti, N., Conte, M.M., Cornacchia, F., Foschi, A., Mazzullo, T., Semeraro, L., Dal Canton, A. Kidney Int. (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. The angiogenesis inhibitor AGM-1470 selectively increases E-selectin. Budson, A.E., Ko, L., Brasel, C., Bischoff, J. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Eimeria bovis modulates adhesion molecule gene transcription in and PMN adhesion to infected bovine endothelial cells. Hermosilla, C., Zahner, H., Taubert, A. Int. J. Parasitol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular mechanisms of improved adhesion and growth of an endothelial cell line cultured on polystyrene implanted with fluorine ions. Bacáková, L., Mares, V., Lisá, V., Svorcík, V. Biomaterials (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Anthocyanins from soybean seed coat inhibit the expression of TNF-alpha-induced genes associated with ischemia/reperfusion in endothelial cell by NF-kappaB-dependent pathway and reduce rat myocardial damages incurred by ischemia and reperfusion in vivo. Kim, H.J., Tsoy, I., Park, J.M., Chung, J.I., Shin, S.C., Chang, K.C. FEBS Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections of bovine endothelial cells induce endothelial adhesion molecule gene transcription and subsequent PMN adhesion. Taubert, A., Krüll, M., Zahner, H., Hermosilla, C. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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