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Gene Review

RT1-Bb  -  RT1 class II, locus Bb

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: Bb, RT1 class II histocompatibility antigen, B-1 beta chain, RT1.B, RT1.B-beta(1), Rano class II histocompatibility antigen, B-1 beta chain
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Disease relevance of RT1-Bb


High impact information on RT1-Bb

  • The degree of class II RFLP in the population studied is RT1.B-alpha greater than or equal to RT1.B-beta greater than RT1.D-alpha greater than or equal to RT1.D-beta, suggesting that intra-class II region dynamics may be different in rats compared with mice [4].
  • We here describe clinical effects of recombinant TCR ligands (RTLs) comprised of the rat RT1.B beta1alpha1 domains covalently linked to the 72-89 peptide of guinea pig myelin basic protein (RTL-201), to the corresponding 72-89 peptide from rat myelin basic protein (RTL-200), or to cardiac myosin peptide CM-2 (RTL-203) [5].
  • MHC class II antigens as encoded by the RT1.B/D region are not expressed on the endocrine pancreas, not even during rejection [6].
  • Although interstitial dendritic cells situated within the islets express these antigens, an isolated RT1.B/D incompatibility of islets is associated with prolonged survival in contrast to rapid rejection of fully MHC-mismatched grafts [6].
  • T cells that respond to this epitope are restricted by the RT1.B class II molecule of the MHC and use V beta 8.2 exclusively in their TCR [7].

Biological context of RT1-Bb


Anatomical context of RT1-Bb

  • Subcloning of pLR beta 118 into a transcription vector with subsequent in vitro transcription and translation using the reticulocyte lysate system in the presence of microsomes followed by immunoprecipitation with mAb OX6 and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed the intact RT1.B beta I-chain [8].
  • The WRC rat, an intra-class II recombinant strain (RT1.B beta nB alpha aD alpha, beta a), was used to study the relative roles of the two class II loci in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) proliferation and suppressor T cell (Ts) generation [13].
  • Studies performed on thymus sections of recombinant rat strains indicate that 1F119, despite its apparent specificity for DC, reacts with a polymorphic RT1.B product [14].
  • In contrast, the RT1.B beta transcripts were found at comparable levels in lymphocytes of the BB and WF rats at all ages examined [15].
  • Antibodies raised against the i haplotype (RT1.AnBa) in strain combinations that were matched for their RT1.A and RT1.B loci and in the BY1 and anti-r11 strain combination, in which the RT1.A and RT1.B loci and many of the non-MHC genes were matched, reacted with red blood cells and lymphocytes carrying the u haplotype [16].

Associations of RT1-Bb with chemical compounds

  • A23187 (1 nM to 2 microM) and/or 10 nM to 10 microM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate did not induce the expression of RT1.B antigen [17].
  • Skin allografting was performed in rats treated with cyclosporine using strain combinations that differed across the RT1.A (class I) or RT1.B (class II) loci of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) or across non-MHC loci [18].
  • However, 0.01-10 micrograms/ml cycloheximide inhibited IFN gamma-induced RT1.B antigen expression in a dose-dependent manner [17].
  • IFN gamma-induced RT1.B expression was not inhibited by either 10 nM to 100 microM 1-(5-isoquinolysulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine or 200 nM to 200 microM 8-(N,N-dimethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrochloride [17].
  • Exposure to mercuric chloride is known to enhance B-lymphocyte expression of the MHC class II molecule RT1.B, predominantly in BN rats [19].

Regulatory relationships of RT1-Bb

  • B cells from Lewis rats showed a similar IL-4-induced enhancement of RT1.B expression (2.5-fold), whereas, in contrast, RT1.D expression was unmodified [19].
  • Thus, expression of mRNA encoding the class II transactivator (CIITA), MHC class II (RT1.B) and invariant chain (Ii) was low or undetectable in neonatal AM stimulated with concentrations of IFN-gamma that induced adult AM to up-regulate MHC class II expression [20].

Other interactions of RT1-Bb

  • Alleles of RT1-Bb and RT1-Db were analyzed by use of the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method [21].
  • The positions of RT1-N1, Tnf, and RT1-Bb into the MHC region were separated and confirmed by results of two backcross panels in our linkage studies [21].
  • Exposure of LN cells from BN rats to interferon-gamma induced a moderate increase of B-cell MHC class II expression, predominantly of RT1.B. Strong and rapid enhancement of B-cell RT1.D expression was observed after stimulation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin [19].
  • Following DA skin grafting, there was an accelerated production of antibodies to whole, undenatured class I MHC molecules, even in the LEW rats preimmunized with RT1-B alpha and RT1-B beta chains [22].
  • Stimulation of BMDM phi with 100 nM SBA induced a decrease in surface density of Thy1.1 (MRC OX7) and His54 and an increase in the expression of MRC OX6 (RT1.B/I-A), MRC OX17 (RT1.D/I-E), MRC OX41 (gp 110/120), MRC OX42 (CD11b/c), Macl (CD11b/CR3) and Mac2 (galectin-3/IgE binding protein) antigen [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RT1-Bb

  • To resolve this contradiction, RT1.B class II molecules, comparable to I-A and I-E molecules in mice, expressed by the RT1c and RT1m haplotypes were immunoprecipitated by cross-reactive mouse anti-Ia antibodies and were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and by high pressure liquid chromatographic separation of tryptic peptides [24].
  • Sequence analysis indicates that the beta-chains of the RT1.B and RT1.D molecules of the u haplotype from DP-BB, DR-BB, and WF rats are identical but that they are different from other rat alleles and published mouse class II sequences [25].
  • Long-term renal allograft survival in rats preimmunized with donor strain RT1.B antigens [26].
  • The contributions of classic class I (RT1.A), class II (RT1.B/D), and medial transplantation (RT1.C) regions of the rat MHC were determined by comparing different recombinant donors into the same recipient strain [27].
  • Rat renal allograft survival was enhanced by active immunization with donor strain RT1.B (Ia) antigens [26].


  1. MHC class II-regulated central nervous system autoaggression and T cell responses in peripheral lymphoid tissues are dissociated in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Weissert, R., de Graaf, K.L., Storch, M.K., Barth, S., Linington, C., Lassmann, H., Olsson, T. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Genetic control of cell-mediated immunity in rats: involvement of RT1.B locus determinants in the proliferative response of T lymphocytes to Listeria antigens. Jungi, T.W., Jungi, R. Infect. Immun. (1982) [Pubmed]
  3. Recombinant gamma interferon induces class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on insulinoma cells. van Vliet, E., Molenaar, J.L., Tuk, C.W., Bruining, G.J., de Vries, R.R. Tissue Antigens (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Major histocompatibility complex restriction fragment length polymorphisms define three diabetogenic haplotypes in BB and BBN rats. Buse, J.B., Rifai-Haddad, R., Lees, S., Taniguchi, H., Chaplin, D., Milford, E.M., Seidman, J.G., Eisenbarth, G.S., Jackson, R.A. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Regulation of encephalitogenic T cells with recombinant TCR ligands. Burrows, G.G., Adlard, K.L., Bebo, B.F., Chang, J.W., Tenditnyy, K., Vandenbark, A.A., Offner, H. J. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. The role of histocompatibility antigens in transplantation of isolated islets of Langerhans in the rat. Hiller, W.F., Steiniger, B., Klempnauer, J. Diabetes (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Characterization of the immune response to a secondary encephalitogenic epitope of basic protein in Lewis rats. II. Biased T cell receptor V beta expression predominates in spinal cord infiltrating T cells. Gold, D.P., Vainiene, M., Celnik, B., Wiley, S., Gibbs, C., Hashim, G.A., Vandenbark, A.A., Offner, H. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Complete coding nucleotide sequence of cDNA for the class II RT1.B beta I chain of the Lewis rat. Syha-Jedelhauser, J., Wendling, U., Reske, K. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Serological characterization of rat class II (RT1.B) alloantigens. Analysis of the RT1l, RT1u, and RT1n haplotypes. Wettstein, P.J. Immunogenetics (1981) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular analysis of the rat MHC. I. Delineation of the major regions in the MHC and in the grc. Hassett, A.L., Stranick, K.S., Locker, J., Kunz, H.W., Gill, T.J. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Systemic morphine administration suppresses genes involved in antigen presentation. Beagles, K., Wellstein, A., Bayer, B. Mol. Pharmacol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. A three-cell cluster hypothesis for noncognate T-B collaboration via direct T cell recognition of allogeneic dendritic cells. Kelly, C.M., Benham, A.M., Sawyer, G.J., Dalchau, R., Fabre, J.W. Transplantation (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Characterization of the Ia antigens involved in suppressor T cell generation in the rat. Uhteg, L.C., Salomon, D.R., Cohen, D.J., Cramer, D.V., Carpenter, C.B. Immunogenetics (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Recognition of rat dendritic cells by a monoclonal antibody. Nagelkerken, L.M., Schutte, B., Stet, R.J., van Breda Vriesman, P.J. Scand. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Elevated mRNA levels of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in lymphocytes of autoimmune BB rats. Holowachuk, E.W., Greer, M.K., Martin, D.R. Diabetes (1988) [Pubmed]
  16. The identification and mapping of a second class I locus in the major histocompatibility complex of the rat. Kunz, H.W., Gill, T.J., Misra, D.N. J. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Cycloheximide inhibits interferon-gamma-induced class II major histocompatibility complex antigen expression in cultured rat thyroid cells. Lee, M.S., Cho, B.Y., Kim, S.Y., Lee, H.K., Koh, C.S., Min, H.K., Lee, J.O., Kang, T.W. Endocrinology (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Prolongation of skin graft survival across different genetic barriers in rats with cyclosporine--and its potentiation by Bordetella pertussis vaccine. Pinto, M., Gill, T.J., Kunz, H.W. Transplantation (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Differential regulation of expression of the MHC class II molecules RT1.B and RT1.D on rat B lymphocytes: effects of interleukin-4, interleukin-13 and interferon-gamma. Roos, A., Schilder-Tol, E.J., Chand, M.A., Claessen, N., Lakkis, F.G., Pascual, D.W., Weening, J.J., Aten, J. Immunology (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Failure of MHC class II expression in neonatal alveolar macrophages: potential role of class II transactivator. Lee, P.T., Holt, P.G., McWilliam, A.S. Eur. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. An improved genetic linkage map of rat chromosome 20. Masuyama, T., Ishibiki, J., Awata, T., Noda, M., Kanazawa, Y., Sugawara, M., Komeda, K. Comp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Allorecognition of isolated, denatured chains of class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. Evidence for an important role for indirect allorecognition in transplantation. Dalchau, R., Fangmann, J., Fabre, J.W. Eur. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Soybean agglutinin binds a 160-kDa rat macrophage membrane glycoprotein and enhances cell differentiation and activation. Krugluger, W., Lucas, T., Köller, M., Boltz-Nitulescu, G., Förster, O. Immunol. Lett. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Identical RT1 class II molecules are expressed by rat RT1m and RT1c haplotypes. Sawicki, J.A., Frelinger, J.G., Palmer, M., Buck, D.A., Dietzschold, B., Wettstein, P.J. J. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Unaltered class II histocompatibility antigens and pathogenesis of IDDM in BB rats. Holowachuk, E.W., Greer, M.K. Diabetes (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Long-term renal allograft survival in rats preimmunized with donor strain RT1.B antigens. Kaldany, A., George, K., Suthanthiran, M., Catto, G.R., Strom, T.B., Carpenter, C.B. Transplantation (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Major histocompatibility complex control of NK-related allogeneic lymphocyte cytotoxicity in rats. The contributions of strong and medial transplantation antigens. Ager, A., Fajumi, J., Sparshott, S.M., Ford, W.L., Butcher, G.W. Transplantation (1988) [Pubmed]
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