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Gene Review

Lgals3  -  lectin, galactoside-binding, soluble, 3

Rattus norvegicus

Synonyms: 35 kDa lectin, AGE-R3, CBP 35, CBP30, Carbohydrate-binding protein 35, ...
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Disease relevance of Lgals3

  • We found that the expression of galectin-1 and galectin-3 was significantly up-regulated in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) both in the course of their transdifferentiation into myofibroblasts, a process of "self-activation," and in the fibrosis of liver tissues [1].
  • Immunocytochemistry demonstrated high levels of galectin-3 in liver granulomas of S. mansoni-infected hamsters, and a colocalization of galectin-3 and LDN glycans was observed on the parasite eggshells [2].
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the expression and sub-cellular distribution of galectin-3, as well as its possible modulation by AGEs, in MC3T3E1 mouse calvaria-derived osteoblasts and in UMR 106 rat osteosarcoma cells [3].
  • The accumulation of irreversible advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) on long-lived proteins, and the interaction of AGEs with cellular receptors such as AGE-R3/galectin-3 and RAGE, are considered to be key events in the development of long-term complications of diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, uremia and ageing [3].
  • Myocardial galectin-3 expression was increased in aortic stenosis patients with depressed ejection fraction [4].

High impact information on Lgals3


Chemical compound and disease context of Lgals3

  • In all galectin-3 expressing cell lines, the lectin is predominantly, if not exclusively, localized intracellularly and carries an active carbohydrate recognition domain (shown for C6 rat glioma cells) [7].

Biological context of Lgals3


Anatomical context of Lgals3

  • Expression of galectin-3 in neuronally differentiating PC12 cells is regulated both via Ras/MAPK-dependent and -independent signalling pathways [11].
  • By using different human cancer cell lines, we showed that Gal-3 is maximally expressed in nuclei of papillary cancer cells [12].
  • Nuclear localization of Galectin-3 in transformed thyroid cells: a role in transcriptional regulation [12].
  • Galectin-3 (Gal-3) was identified as highly expressed, in the nuclear compartment, only in the transformed cell line [12].
  • Osteoblastic exposure to AGEs alters their expression and secretion of galectin-3, which could have significant consequences on osteoblast metabolism and thus on bone turnover [3].

Associations of Lgals3 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Lgals3


Other interactions of Lgals3


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Lgals3

  • The cDNAs of rat retinal galectins were also isolated by means of polymerase chain reaction and used to produce an antibody against recombinant galectin-3 [16].
  • Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis and a solid phase binding assay demonstrated that galectin-3 binds directly to neoglycoconjugates carrying LDN glycans [2].
  • Cells were evaluated for galectin-3 expression by fixing and immunofluorescent microscopic analysis; or Western blot analysis of whole cell extracts, sub-cellular fractions and culture media [3].
  • These findings suggest that the increased synthesis and secretion of galectin 3 during irradiation-induced lung injury, together with ligation of secreted lectin at the surface of alveolar epithelial cells, may play roles in pulmonary alveolar epithelial expansion and differentiation during injury and repair [9].
  • We have demonstrated by immunoblotting that both galectin-1 and galectin-3 are present in extracts of endothelial cells cultured from bovine aorta, rat lung, mouse lung and mouse brain microvessels, whereas mouse hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells expressed primarily galectin-1 [19].


  1. Stimulation of proliferation of rat hepatic stellate cells by galectin-1 and galectin-3 through different intracellular signaling pathways. Maeda, N., Kawada, N., Seki, S., Arakawa, T., Ikeda, K., Iwao, H., Okuyama, H., Hirabayashi, J., Kasai, K., Yoshizato, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. LacdiNAc-glycans constitute a parasite pattern for galectin-3-mediated immune recognition. van den Berg, T.K., Honing, H., Franke, N., van Remoortere, A., Schiphorst, W.E., Liu, F.T., Deelder, A.M., Cummings, R.D., Hokke, C.H., van Die, I. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. AGE-R3/galectin-3 expression in osteoblast-like cells: regulation by AGEs. Mercer, N., Ahmed, H., McCarthy, A.D., Etcheverry, S.B., Vasta, G.R., Cortizo, A.M. Mol. Cell. Biochem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Galectin-3 marks activated macrophages in failure-prone hypertrophied hearts and contributes to cardiac dysfunction. Sharma, U.C., Pokharel, S., van Brakel, T.J., van Berlo, J.H., Cleutjens, J.P., Schroen, B., André, S., Crijns, H.J., Gabius, H.J., Maessen, J., Pinto, Y.M. Circulation (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Induction of terminal differentiation in epithelial cells requires polymerization of hensin by galectin 3. Hikita, C., Vijayakumar, S., Takito, J., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Al-Awqati, Q. J. Cell Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Distribution of a 69-kD laminin-binding protein in aortic and microvascular endothelial cells: modulation during cell attachment, spreading, and migration. Yannariello-Brown, J., Wewer, U., Liotta, L., Madri, J.A. J. Cell Biol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression pattern of galectin-3 in neural tumor cell lines. Kuklinski, S., Pesheva, P., Heimann, C., Urschel, S., Gloor, S., Graeber, S., Herzog, V., Pietsch, T., Wiestler, O.D., Probstmeier, R. J. Neurosci. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Ly6 family member C4.4A binds laminins 1 and 5, associates with galectin-3 and supports cell migration. Paret, C., Bourouba, M., Beer, A., Miyazaki, K., Schnölzer, M., Fiedler, S., Zöller, M. Int. J. Cancer (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Immunocytochemical evidence for a modulation of galectin 3 (Mac-2), a carbohydrate binding protein, in pulmonary fibrosis. Kasper, M., Hughes, R.C. J. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Purification of galectin-3 from ovine placenta: developmentally regulated expression and immunological relevance. Iglesias, M.M., Rabinovich, G.A., Ambrosio, A.L., Castagna, L.F., Sotomayor, C.E., Wolfenstein-Todel, C. Glycobiology (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of galectin-3 in neuronally differentiating PC12 cells is regulated both via Ras/MAPK-dependent and -independent signalling pathways. Kuklinski, S., Vladimirova, V., Waha, A., Kamata, H., Pesheva, P., Probstmeier, R. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Nuclear localization of Galectin-3 in transformed thyroid cells: a role in transcriptional regulation. Paron, I., Scaloni, A., Pines, A., Bachi, A., Liu, F.T., Puppin, C., Pandolfi, M., Ledda, L., Di Loreto, C., Damante, G., Tell, G. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Efficacy of galectins in the amelioration of nephrotoxic serum nephritis in Wistar Kyoto rats. Tsuchiyama, Y., Wada, J., Zhang, H., Morita, Y., Hiragushi, K., Hida, K., Shikata, K., Yamamura, M., Kanwar, Y.S., Makino, H. Kidney Int. (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Up-regulation of galectin-3 in acute renal failure of the rat. Nishiyama, J., Kobayashi, S., Ishida, A., Nakabayashi, I., Tajima, O., Miura, S., Katayama, M., Nogami, H. Am. J. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Gene therapy with galectin-3 inhibits bronchial obstruction and inflammation in antigen-challenged rats through interleukin-5 gene downregulation. del Pozo, V., Rojo, M., Rubio, M.L., Cortegano, I., Cárdaba, B., Gallardo, S., Ortega, M., Civantos, E., López, E., Martín-Mosquero, C., Peces-Barba, G., Palomino, P., González-Mangado, N., Lahoz, C. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Isolation and characterization of galectins in the mammalian retina. Uehara, F., Ohba, N., Ozawa, M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. A role of dystroglycan in schwannoma cell adhesion to laminin. Matsumura, K., Chiba, A., Yamada, H., Fukuta-Ohi, H., Fujita, S., Endo, T., Kobata, A., Anderson, L.V., Kanazawa, I., Campbell, K.P., Shimizu, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Galectin-3 modulates rat mesangial cell proliferation and matrix synthesis during experimental glomerulonephritis induced by anti-Thy1.1 antibodies. Sasaki, S., Bao, Q., Hughes, R.C. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Expression of galectins on microvessel endothelial cells and their involvement in tumour cell adhesion. Lotan, R., Belloni, P.N., Tressler, R.J., Lotan, D., Xu, X.C., Nicolson, G.L. Glycoconj. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
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