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Gene Review

Eip74EF  -  Ecdysone-induced protein 74EF

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: 3.3, 74EF, CG32180, CG6273, CG6285, ...
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Disease relevance of Eip74EF


High impact information on Eip74EF

  • The Drosophila 78C early late puff contains E78, an ecdysone-inducible gene that encodes a novel member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily [5].
  • We have isolated an ecdysone-inducible gene, E74, from the early puff at position 74EF in the Drosophila polytene chromosomes [6].
  • We show that E74 consists of three nested transcription units that derive from unique promoters but share a single polyadenylation site [6].
  • The 60 kb E74A unit is directly induced by ecdysone and leads to the synthesis of a 6.0 kb mRNA that contains an unusually long 5' leader (1891 nucleotides) with 17 short ORFs [6].
  • Within the fifth of the seven E74A introns are two E74B promoters that direct the synthesis of 4.8 and 5.1 kb mRNAs [6].

Biological context of Eip74EF


Anatomical context of Eip74EF

  • Although this cell line has previously been shown to synthesize components of the ecdysteroid receptor and ecdysone-inducible proteins, the well-characterized ecdysteroid response element (EcRE) from the Drosophilahsp27 promoter failed to confer a substantial 20-hydroxyecdysone mediated induction in transfected mosquito cells [11].
  • Ecdysone-inducible functions of larval fat bodies in Drosophila [12].
  • The ratio of Ate1-1 to Ate1-2 mRNA varies greatly among the mouse tissues; it is approximately 0.1 in the skeletal muscle, approximately 0.25 in the spleen, approximately 3.3 in the liver and brain, and approximately 10 in the testis, suggesting that the two R-transferases are functionally distinct [13].
  • In early prepupae, when the overall levels of E74A mRNA are decreasing, relatively high levels of E74A RNA persist in the gut, peripodial membranes of the imaginal discs, and proliferation centers of the brain [14].
  • Reducing the size of flanking sequence to 3.3 kb of intron 2 restricted lacZ expression to the outflow tract and the basal part of the right ventricle in E10.5 embryos [15].

Associations of Eip74EF with chemical compounds

  • It is proposed that the activity of the 20-OH-ecdysone inducible puff 74EF leads to a switch in the synthesis of a transcription factor [16].
  • The consensus sequence for E74A protein binding, determined by random-sequence oligonucleotide selection, contains an invariant purine-rich core sequence, C/AGGAA [17].
  • A site-directed mutant of apocytochrome c (lysines 5, 7, and 8 replaced by glutamine, glutamic acid, and asparagine) was found to be converted to holocytochrome c (Km approximately 3.3 nM; maximal activity unchanged), even though the mutations completely eliminated the high affinity binding [18].
  • We show that a restricted selectivity for GGAA core-containing sites could be conferred to Ets1 upon changing a single lysine residue within CRIII to the threonine found in Elf1 and E74 at this position [19].
  • Crithidia fasciculata hsp83 undergoes autophosphorylation on serine and threonine at a rate constant of 3.3 x 10(-3) min-1 [20].

Other interactions of Eip74EF

  • As the hormone concentration peaks in late third instar larvae, these transcripts are repressed and the class II RNAs (E74A, E75A and E75B) are induced [21].
  • The structure of the DHR3 protein is strikingly similar to that of the MHR3 protein (e.g., 97% amino acid identity for the DNA binding domains), another orphan receptor encoded by an ecdysone-inducible early gene of another insect, Manduca sexta [22].
  • We have found that the BR-C is critical for the appropriate regulation of all three classes of ecdysone-inducible genes [23].
  • The class I transcripts (E74B and EcR) are induced in mid-third instar larvae in response to the low, but increasing, titer of ecdysone [21].
  • The Drosophila 63F early puff contains E63-1, an ecdysone-inducible gene that encodes a novel Ca(2+)-binding protein [24].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Eip74EF


  1. E75 expression in mosquito ovary and fat body suggests reiterative use of ecdysone-regulated hierarchies in development and reproduction. Pierceall, W.E., Li, C., Biran, A., Miura, K., Raikhel, A.S., Segraves, W.A. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Characterization and chromosomal localization of the human proto-oncogene BMI-1. Alkema, M.J., Wiegant, J., Raap, A.K., Berns, A., van Lohuizen, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  3. Testing the position-effect variegation hypothesis for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy by analysis of histone modification and gene expression in subtelomeric 4q. Jiang, G., Yang, F., van Overveld, P.G., Vedanarayanan, V., van der Maarel, S., Ehrlich, M. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Activation of the human T-cell leukemia virus type I enhancer is mediated by binding sites for Elf-1 and the pets factor. Clark, N.M., Smith, M.J., Hilfinger, J.M., Markovitz, D.M. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. The Drosophila 78C early late puff contains E78, an ecdysone-inducible gene that encodes a novel member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Stone, B.L., Thummel, C.S. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. The Drosophila 74EF early puff contains E74, a complex ecdysone-inducible gene that encodes two ets-related proteins. Burtis, K.C., Thummel, C.S., Jones, C.W., Karim, F.D., Hogness, D.S. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. A steroid-triggered switch in E74 transcription factor isoforms regulates the timing of secondary-response gene expression. Fletcher, J.C., D'Avino, P.P., Thummel, C.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Steroid regulation of autophagic programmed cell death during development. Lee, C.Y., Baehrecke, E.H. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  9. The ecdysone-inducible Broad-complex and E74 early genes interact to regulate target gene transcription and Drosophila metamorphosis. Fletcher, J.C., Thummel, C.S. Genetics (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Cloning of a shrimp (Metapanaeus ensis) cDNA encoding a nuclear receptor superfamily member: an insect homologue of E75 gene. Chan, S.M. FEBS Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. Decreased survival of mosquito cells after stable transfection with a Drosophila ecdysteroid response element: possible involvement of a 40 kDa DNA binding protein. Jayachandran, G., Fallon, A.M. J. Insect Sci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Ecdysone-inducible functions of larval fat bodies in Drosophila. Lepesant, J.A., Kejzlarova-Lepesant, J., Garen, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  13. Alternative splicing results in differential expression, activity, and localization of the two forms of arginyl-tRNA-protein transferase, a component of the N-end rule pathway. Kwon, Y.T., Kashina, A.S., Varshavsky, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Patterns of E74A RNA and protein expression at the onset of metamorphosis in Drosophila. Boyd, L., O'Toole, E., Thummel, C.S. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Complex modular cis-acting elements regulate expression of the cardiac specifying homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5. Tanaka, M., Wechsler, S.B., Lee, I.W., Yamasaki, N., Lawitts, J.A., Izumo, S. Development (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Characterization of a putative transcription factor gene expressed in the 20-OH-ecdysone inducible puff 74EF in Drosophila melanogaster. Janknecht, R., Taube, W., Lüdecke, H.J., Pongs, O. Nucleic Acids Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular interactions within the ecdysone regulatory hierarchy: DNA binding properties of the Drosophila ecdysone-inducible E74A protein. Urness, L.D., Thummel, C.S. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Cytochrome c heme lyase activity of yeast mitochondria. Tong, J., Margoliash, E. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. A single amino-acid substitution in the Ets domain alters core DNA binding specificity of Ets1 to that of the related transcription factors Elf1 and E74. Bosselut, R., Levin, J., Adjadj, E., Ghysdael, J. Nucleic Acids Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. 83-kilodalton heat shock proteins of trypanosomes are potent peptide-stimulated ATPases. Nadeau, K., Sullivan, M.A., Bradley, M., Engman, D.M., Walsh, C.T. Protein Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Temporal coordination of regulatory gene expression by the steroid hormone ecdysone. Karim, F.D., Thummel, C.S. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. DHR3: a Drosophila steroid receptor homolog. Koelle, M.R., Segraves, W.A., Hogness, D.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. The Drosophila Broad-Complex plays a key role in controlling ecdysone-regulated gene expression at the onset of metamorphosis. Karim, F.D., Guild, G.M., Thummel, C.S. Development (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. The Drosophila 63F early puff contains E63-1, an ecdysone-inducible gene that encodes a novel Ca(2+)-binding protein. Andres, A.J., Thummel, C.S. Development (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Ecdysone coordinates the timing and amounts of E74A and E74B transcription in Drosophila. Karim, F.D., Thummel, C.S. Genes Dev. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Isolation and characterization of five Drosophila genes that encode an ets-related DNA binding domain. Chen, T., Bunting, M., Karim, F.D., Thummel, C.S. Dev. Biol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  27. Bioactive fractions containing methyl eugenol-derived sex pheromonal components in haemolymph of the male fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Hee, A.K., Tan, K.H. Bull. Entomol. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
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