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Gene Review

GPX1  -  glutathione peroxidase 1

Canis lupus familiaris

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Disease relevance of GPX1

  • Based on theoretical evidence, it has been proposed that HIV-1 may encode several selenoprotein modules, one of which (overlapping the env gp41-coding region) has highly significant sequence similarity to the mammalian selenoprotein glutathione peroxidase (GPx; EC ) [1].
  • RESULTS--In group B, a 15-minute cardiac arrest induced an increase in MDA, a significant reduction of GSH, and no change in SOD and GSH-PX activities compared with group A. In group C, there were further increases in MDA and reductions in GSH content and GSH-PX activity compared with group A; SOD activity remained substantially unchanged [2].
  • Ebselen, a seleno-organic compound which inhibits arachidonic acid lipoxygenase activity and exerts glutathione peroxidase-like activity, ameliorated delayed cerebral vasospasm in a canine two-hemorrhage model [3].
  • After a single low dose (2-3 mg/kg body weight), GR and GSH Px activities were reduced [4].
  • The activities of G-6-PDH, GR and GSH Px correlated with the total paraquat dose and with the extent of pulmonary fibrosis measured with an electronic image analyzer [4].

High impact information on GPX1


Chemical compound and disease context of GPX1


Biological context of GPX1


Anatomical context of GPX1

  • No significant changes were detected in activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase in erythrocytes or myocardial tissue from control and adriamycin-treated animals [12].
  • Among the three species considered, sheep presented the lowest plasmatic GSH and the highest lymphocyte GSHPx activity [13].
  • Expression of GSH-PO was recognized in the foamy cytoplasm of macrophages and smooth muscle cells in the early and advanced atherosclerotic lesions [14].
  • Tissue samples from liver, kidney and small intestines were taken for histological studies and liver samples were also taken for the mesurement of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px tissue levels [8].
  • Activities of glutathione peroxidase and reductase were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in the ischemic myocardium than those of the nonischemic myocardium immediately after repetitive brief ischemia, but no differences between these regions were seen in activities after 3 or 24 h [15].

Associations of GPX1 with chemical compounds

  • In the arterial wall, there was a slight decrease in the activity of SOD, a significant decrease in the activity of GSH-px (p less than 0.01), and also a significant decrease in the concentration of glutathione (p less than 0.01) up to the eighth day following SAH [16].
  • Prevention of volume overload-induced decrease in myocardial contractility by vitamin E was associated with a decrease in cardiac MDA and an increase in cardiac antioxidant reserve and glutathione peroxidase activity towards control levels [17].
  • Litter effects were observed for VE, Cu, UA, and Gpx [18].
  • Aging was associated with decreased RP, VA, VE, Se, and Cu and with increased RT, Cp, and Gpx [18].
  • Activities of the detoxifying enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase I in prostate were increased by estradiol-17 beta treatment, whereas in kidney or liver they were not affected or changed to a lesser degree than observed in prostate [19].

Other interactions of GPX1


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of GPX1


  1. Molecular modeling and in vitro activity of an HIV-1-encoded glutathione peroxidase. Zhao, L., Cox, A.G., Ruzicka, J.A., Bhat, A.A., Zhang, W., Taylor, E.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Effect of moderate hypothermia on lipid peroxidation in canine brain tissue after cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Lei, B., Tan, X., Cai, H., Xu, Q., Guo, Q. Stroke (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Ebselen (DR3305) ameliorates delayed cerebral vasospasm in a canine two-hemorrhage model. Watanabe, T., Nishiyama, M., Hori, T., Asano, T., Shimizu, T., Masayasu, H. Neurol. Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Pentose pathway in pulmonary fibrosis due to chronic paraquat poisoning. Saunier, C., Horsky, P., Hartemann, D., Schrijen, F., Gille, J.P. Respiration; international review of thoracic diseases. (1980) [Pubmed]
  5. Glutathione redox pathway and reperfusion injury. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on infarct size and ventricular function. Forman, M.B., Puett, D.W., Cates, C.U., McCroskey, D.E., Beckman, J.K., Greene, H.L., Virmani, R. Circulation (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Modulating effect of thiol-disulfide status on [14C]aminopyrine accumulation in the isolated parietal cell. Olson, C.E., Soll, A.H., Kaplowitz, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. Protection from radiation injury by elemental diet: does added glutamine change the effect? McArdle, A.H. Gut (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. The role of oxygen free radicals and nitric oxide in organ injury following hemorrhagic shock and reinfusion. Bedirli, A., Sözüer, E.M., Muhtaroğlu, S., Alper, M. International journal of surgical investigation. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Copper metabolism and oxidative stress in chronic inflammatory and cholestatic liver diseases in dogs. Spee, B., Arends, B., van den Ingh, T.S., Penning, L.C., Rothuizen, J. J. Vet. Intern. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Daunorubicin-induced cardiac injury in the rabbit: a role for daunorubicinol? Cusack, B.J., Mushlin, P.S., Voulelis, L.D., Li, X., Boucek, R.J., Olson, R.D. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Dirofilaria immitis: molecular cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding a selenium-independent secreted glutathione peroxidase. Tripp, C., Frank, R.S., Selkirk, M.E., Tang, L., Grieve, M.M., Frank, G.R., Grieve, R.B. Exp. Parasitol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Adriamycin cardiomyopathy: implications of cellular changes in a canine model with mild impairment of left ventricular function. Tomlinson, C.W., Godin, D.V., Rabkin, S.W. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Antioxidant systems and lymphocyte proliferation in the horse, sheep and dog. Chiaradia, E., Gaiti, A., Scaringi, L., Cornacchione, P., Marconi, P., Avellini, L. Vet. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  14. Immunohistochemical localization of apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) and expression of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PO) in canine atherosclerotic lesions. Kagawa, Y., Uchida, E., Yokota, H., Yamaguchi, M., Taniyama, H. Vet. Pathol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Sublethal ischemia alters myocardial antioxidant activity in canine heart. Hoshida, S., Kuzuya, T., Fuji, H., Yamashita, N., Oe, H., Hori, M., Suzuki, K., Taniguchi, N., Tada, M. Am. J. Physiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Free radical reaction and biological defense mechanism in the pathogenesis of prolonged vasospasm in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. Sakaki, S., Ohta, S., Nakamura, H., Takeda, S. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. Oxidative stress as a mechanism of cardiac failure in chronic volume overload in canine model. Prasad, K., Gupta, J.B., Kalra, J., Lee, P., Mantha, S.V., Bharadwaj, B. J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. Antioxidant status of pair-fed labrador retrievers is affected by diet restriction and aging. Stowe, H.D., Lawler, D.F., Kealy, R.D. J. Nutr. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Possible mechanism of induction of benign prostatic hyperplasia by estradiol and dihydrotestosterone in dogs. Winter, M.L., Liehr, J.G. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Greater susceptibility of failing cardiac myocytes to oxygen free radical-mediated injury. Tsutsui, H., Ide, T., Hayashidani, S., Suematsu, N., Utsumi, H., Nakamura, R., Egashira, K., Takeshita, A. Cardiovasc. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Glutathione metabolism in lenses of dogs and rabbits: activities of five enzymes. Rathbun, W.B., Sethna, S.S., Skelnik, D.L., Bistner, S.I. Exp. Eye Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
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