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Gene Review

Anxty  -  anxiety

Mus musculus

Synonyms: Anx
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Disease relevance of Anxty


Psychiatry related information on Anxty

  • VGLUT1-heterozygous mice displayed normal spontaneous locomotor activity, increased anxiety in the light-dark exploration test and depressive-like behaviour in the forced swimming test: no differences were shown in the elevated plus-maze model of anxiety [3].
  • BACKGROUND: Anxiety during ethanol withdrawal may be a factor in relapse to alcohol abuse and dependence [4].
  • Chartoff; (3) CREB-Haplodeficient Mice: Role in Anxiety and Alcohol-Drinking Behaviors, by Subhash C [5].
  • The present study tested whether individual differences in anxiety- and fear-related behaviour are associated with between-subjects variation in postmortem brain levels of selected neurotrophic factors [6].
  • Results showed that 5-HTT KO mice displayed a profile of suppressed exploratory behavior and increased anxiety-like behavior in the light/dark, elevated plus-maze and open field tests, as well as increased depression-related behavior in the forced swim test following repeated exposure to the test [7].

High impact information on Anxty

  • Here we show that THP (allopregnanolone), a steroid that is released as a result of stress, increases anxiety in pubertal female mice, in contrast to its anxiety-reducing effect in adults [8].
  • In the behavioral analysis, BDNF(Met/Met) mice show increased anxiety-related behaviors [9].
  • Overexpression did not cause anxiety or proconflict behavior, nor influenced kainic acid or pentylenetetrazole induced seizure activity [10].
  • Efficacy of the MCHR1 Antagonist N-[3-(1-{[4-(3,4-Difluorophenoxy)phenyl]methyl}(4-piperidyl))-4-methylphenyl]-2-methylpropanamide (SNAP 94847) in Mouse Models of Anxiety and Depression following Acute and Chronic Administration Is Independent of Hippocampal Neurogenesis [11].
  • Given evidence linking alterations in glutamate neurotransmission to various neuropsychiatric disorders, we investigated the possible influence of a down-regulation of VGLUT1 transporter on anxiety, depressive-like behaviour and learning [3].

Biological context of Anxty


Anatomical context of Anxty

  • Gabrb3 gene deficient (gabrb3(-/-)) mice, control littermates (gabrb3(+/+)) and their progenitor strains C57Bl/6J and 129/SvJ were assessed for changes in the morphology of the main noradrenergic nuclei, the locus coeruleus (LC) and LC-associated behaviors including anxiety and muscle tone [16].
  • Levels of neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus and amygdala correlate with anxiety- and fear-related behaviour in C57BL6 mice [6].

Associations of Anxty with chemical compounds

  • METHOD: Anxiety was evaluated in the elevated plusmaze and spontaneous working memory was evaluated in the Y-maze following scopolamine, pirenzepine or McN-A-343 infusion in the IL cortex [17].
  • In the present study, we examined whether the effect of music on anxiety is related to ovarian steroid in female mice [18].
  • These results suggest that exposure to music reduces anxiety levels, and ovarian steroids, mainly progesterone, may be involved in the anxiolytic effect of music observed in female mice [18].
  • Behavioral paradigms measuring anxiety were tested in gonadally intact (SHAM) and ovariectomized (OVX) female mice chronically treated with either placebo (OVX/Placebo), 17beta-estradiol (OVX/E), or progesterone (OVX/P) [18].
  • A second Anxiety-related Factor only correlated with the fear-sensitized ASR and anxiety parameters on the EPM but not receptor densities [19].

Other interactions of Anxty

  • Gabrb3(-/-) mice also exhibited a significant increase in stretch-attend posturing, a form of risk assessment behavior associated with anxiety [16].
  • Here, we used a multi-disciplinary approach to demonstrate that GluR5-containing kainate receptors regulate local inhibitory circuits, modulate the excitatory transmission from the basolateral amygdala to the central amygdala, and control behavioral anxiety [20].
  • Studies using mice with beta4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit deficiency (beta4-/- mice) helped reveal the roles of this subunit in bradycardiac response to vagal stimulation, nicotine-induced seizure activity and anxiety [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Anxty

  • Afraid of complications in gene targeting? Anxiety plays a role [22]!
  • RATIONALE: Anxiety is a common disorder in humans that exists in many forms, and animal models of human anxiety are typically employed for the discovery of anxiolytic drugs with human therapeutic potential [23].
  • We employed five anxiety models: Separation-induced pup vocalizations (guinea pig and rat), elevated plus-maze (EPM), conditioned lick suppression (CLS), and marble burying (mouse); as well as three depression models: forced swim test (FST; mouse and rat) and tail suspension test (TST; mouse) [24].


  1. Adrenal insufficiency and colonic inflammation after a novel chronic psycho-social stress paradigm in mice: implications and mechanisms. Reber, S.O., Birkeneder, L., Veenema, A.H., Obermeier, F., Falk, W., Straub, R.H., Neumann, I.D. Endocrinology (2007) [Pubmed]
  2. The impact of tail tip amputation and ink tattoo on C57BL/6JBomTac mice. Sørensen, D.B., Stub, C., Jensen, H.E., Ritskes-Hoitinga, M., Hjorth, P., Ottesen, J.L., Hansen, A.K. Lab. Anim. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. Enhanced anxiety, depressive-like behaviour and impaired recognition memory in mice with reduced expression of the vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1). Tordera, R.M., Totterdell, S., Wojcik, S.M., Brose, N., Elizalde, N., Lasheras, B., Del Rio, J. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  4. Anxiety-like behavior in mice in two apparatuses during withdrawal from chronic ethanol vapor inhalation. Kliethermes, C.L., Cronise, K., Crabbe, J.C. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. CREB gene transcription factors: role in molecular mechanisms of alcohol and drug addiction. Pandey, S.C., Chartoff, E.H., Carlezon, W.A., Zou, J., Zhang, H., Kreibich, A.S., Blendy, J.A., Crews, F.T. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. Levels of neurotrophic factors in the hippocampus and amygdala correlate with anxiety- and fear-related behaviour in C57BL6 mice. Yee, B.K., Zhu, S.W., Mohammed, A.H., Feldon, J. Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of Mild Early Life Stress on Abnormal Emotion-related Behaviors in 5-HTT Knockout Mice. Carroll, J.C., Boyce-Rustay, J.M., Millstein, R., Yang, R., Wiedholz, L.M., Murphy, D.L., Holmes, A. Behav. Genet. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Reversal of neurosteroid effects at alpha4beta2delta GABA(A) receptors triggers anxiety at puberty. Shen, H., Gong, Q.H., Aoki, C., Yuan, M., Ruderman, Y., Dattilo, M., Williams, K., Smith, S.S. Nat. Neurosci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  9. BDNF variant linked to anxiety-related behaviors. Hashimoto, K. Bioessays (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Diazepam binding inhibitor overexpression in mice causes hydrocephalus, decreases plasticity in excitatory synapses and impairs hippocampus-dependent learning. Siiskonen, H., Oikari, S., Korhonen, V.P., Pitkänen, A., Voikar, V., Kettunen, M., Hakumäki, J., Wahlfors, T., Pussinen, R., Penttonen, M., Kiehne, K., Kaasinen, S.K., Alhonen, L., Jänne, J., Herzig, K.H. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  11. Efficacy of the MCHR1 Antagonist N-[3-(1-{[4-(3,4-Difluorophenoxy)phenyl]methyl}(4-piperidyl))-4-methylphenyl]-2-methylpropanamide (SNAP 94847) in Mouse Models of Anxiety and Depression following Acute and Chronic Administration Is Independent of Hippocampal Neurogenesis. David, D.J., Klemenhagen, K.C., Holick, K.A., Saxe, M.D., Mendez, I., Santarelli, L., Craig, D.A., Zhong, H., Swanson, C.J., Hegde, L.G., Ping, X.I., Dong, D., Marzabadi, M.R., Gerald, C.P., Hen, R. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Behavioral evaluation of mice deficient in GABA(B(1)) receptor isoforms in tests of unconditioned anxiety. Jacobson, L.H., Bettler, B., Kaupmann, K., Cryan, J.F. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Influence of paternal genotypes on F1 behaviors: Lessons from several mouse strains. Kalueff, A.V., Keisala, T., Minasyan, A., Tuohimaa, P. Behav. Brain Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Genetic and Structural Analysis of the Basolateral Amygdala Complex in BXD Recombinant Inbred Mice. Mozhui, K., Hamre, K.M., Holmes, A., Lu, L., Williams, R.W. Behav. Genet. (2007) [Pubmed]
  15. Reduced anxiety, conditioned fear, and hippocampal long-term potentiation in transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor-deficient mice. Marsch, R., Foeller, E., Rammes, G., Bunck, M., Kössl, M., Holsboer, F., Zieglgänsberger, W., Landgraf, R., Lutz, B., Wotjak, C.T. J. Neurosci. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. Gabrb3 gene deficient mice exhibit increased risk assessment behavior, hypotonia and expansion of the plexus of locus coeruleus dendrites. Hashemi, E., Sahbaie, P., Davies, M.F., Clark, J.D., Delorey, T.M. Brain Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Infralimbic muscarinic M1 receptors modulate anxiety-like behaviour and spontaneous working memory in mice. Wall, P.M., Flinn, J., Messier, C. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Anxiolytic effect of music depends on ovarian steroid in female mice. Chikahisa, S., Sano, A., Kitaoka, K., Miyamoto, K., Sei, H. Behav. Brain Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  19. Anxiety-related behavior and densities of glutamate, GABAA, acetylcholine and serotonin receptors in the amygdala of seven inbred mouse strains. Yilmazer-Hanke, D.M., Roskoden, T., Zilles, K., Schwegler, H. Behav. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Increased Anxiety-Like Behavior and Enhanced Synaptic Efficacy in the Amygdala of GluR5 Knockout Mice. Wu, L.J., Ko, S.W., Toyoda, H., Zhao, M.G., Xu, H., Vadakkan, K.I., Ren, M., Knifed, E., Shum, F., Quan, J., Zhang, X.H., Zhuo, M. PLoS ONE (2007) [Pubmed]
  21. Differential brain transcriptome of beta4 nAChR subunit-deficient mice: is it the effect of the null mutation or the background strain? Kedmi, M., Orr-Urtreger, A. Physiol. Genomics (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Afraid of complications in gene targeting? Anxiety plays a role! Gerlai, R. Trends Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Validation of a modified mirrored chamber sensitive to anxiolytics and anxiogenics in mice. Kliethermes, C.L., Finn, D.A., Crabbe, J.C. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Comparison of the V1b antagonist, SSR149415, and the CRF1 antagonist, CP-154,526, in rodent models of anxiety and depression. Hodgson, R.A., Higgins, G.A., Guthrie, D.H., Lu, S.X., Pond, A.J., Mullins, D.E., Guzzi, M.F., Parker, E.M., Varty, G.B. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (2007) [Pubmed]
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