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Gene Review

SM2  -  Hepatic fibrosis susceptibility due to...

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of SM2

  • Immunoblotting experiments revealed that antibodies SM1 and SM2 recognize epitopes on two different peptides derived by CNBr cleavage of alpha-pili from Neisseria gonorrhoeae P9-2 [1].
  • Expression of SM1 and SM2 MHCs was variable in the different leiomyomas studied [2].
  • Reconstituted Sendai virus envelopes containing both the fusion (F) protein and the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) (F,HN-virosomes) or only the F protein (F-virosomes) were prepared by solubilization of the intact virus with Triton X-100 followed by its removal by using SM2 Bio-Beads [3].
  • SMemb expression was increased but SM2 expression was not in the channels of myxoma [4].

High impact information on SM2


Biological context of SM2


Anatomical context of SM2


Associations of SM2 with chemical compounds

  • In the abdominal aorta, there were no changes in SM1/SM2 with 17beta-estradiol, and differences in contractility were blunted [16].
  • Calcium, phosphorus, lactic acid, and citrate were determined in cheeses made with skim milk (SM2, 3.14% protein), skim milk supplemented with ultrafiltered milk (CSM2, 6.80% protein), and nonfat dry milk (CSM3, 6.80% protein) [17].
  • Calcium lactate crystals were observed in cheeses made from SM2 at and below pH 5.1, whereas CLC were observed in cheeses from CSM2 and CSM3 at and below pH 5 [17].
  • After 6 days of treatment, SM-2 expression increased, highest in the doxazosin-treated cultures [18].
  • RESULTS: The binding assay with 3H-R1881 identified the presence of both cytosolic and nucleosolic androgen receptors in KYN-1/SM10 but not in KYN-1/SM2 [19].

Co-localisations of SM2

  • We have shown that an endogenous protease can cleave a small 4 kDa region from the C-terminal of the SM1 isoform which generates a pSM1 species which comigrates with the SM2 isoform on low density SDS gels [20].

Regulatory relationships of SM2

  • SM1 is specifically expressed in smooth muscles from early development and SM2 appears after birth [8].
  • Predominant SMemb expression indicates presence of phenotypic modulated SMCs and enhanced MMP; while abundant TIMP was seen in mature SMCs expressing SM2 [21].

Other interactions of SM2

  • There was a predominance of SM2 isoform mRNA relative to SM1 across all samples, with a mean of 63.8%, which correlated with protein analysis by gel electrophoresis [22].
  • The arterial components of AVM contained an abundance of SMCs of the contractile phenotype, which were positive for alpha-actin, SM1 and SM2, but not for SMemb and NMHC-A [23].
  • Septal spindle-shaped cells in LC lacked the cytoskeletal proteins specific to differentiated smooth muscle cells (CGA7, SM1, SM2 and desmin) [24].
  • Gel electrophoresis and Western blotting, performed with anti-(SM1/SM2 myosin isoform) antibody, indicated quantitative differences between LMS and LM, which mirrored higher positive to negative nuclear ratios for PCNA, Ki67 and apoptosis in malignant as opposed to benign neoplasms [25].
  • The expression of the SM2 isoform of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) mRNA was also examined [26].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of SM2


  1. Role of anti-pilus antibodies in host defense against gonococcal infection studied with monoclonal anti-pilus antibodies. Virji, M., Heckels, J.E. Infect. Immun. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Myosin heavy chain isoform expression in human myometrium: presence of an embryonic nonmuscle isoform in leiomyomas and in cultured cells. Cavaillé, F., Fournier, T., Dallot, E., Dhellemes, C., Ferré, F. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase enhances F protein-mediated membrane fusion of reconstituted Sendai virus envelopes with cells. Bagai, S., Puri, A., Blumenthal, R., Sarkar, D.P. J. Virol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. In situ interleukin-6 transcription in embryonic nonmuscle myosin heavy chain expressing immature mesenchyme cells of cardiac myxoma. Suzuki, J., Takayama, K., Mitsui, F., Kono, T., Yazaki, Y., Takei, M., Amano, J., Isobe, M. Cardiovascular pathology : the official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  5. Redifferentiation of smooth muscle cells after coronary angioplasty determined via myosin heavy chain expression. Aikawa, M., Sakomura, Y., Ueda, M., Kimura, K., Manabe, I., Ishiwata, S., Komiyama, N., Yamaguchi, H., Yazaki, Y., Nagai, R. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Physiological substrates for human lysosomal beta -hexosaminidase S. Hepbildikler, S.T., Sandhoff, R., Kolzer, M., Proia, R.L., Sandhoff, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Embryonic form of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMemb/MHC-B) in gastrointestinal stromal tumor and interstitial cells of Cajal. Sakurai, S., Fukasawa, T., Chong, J.M., Tanaka, A., Fukayama, M. Am. J. Pathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Difference of myosin heavy chain expression between mesangial cells and vascular smooth muscles. Nakai, K., Ito, C., Yumura, W., Horita, S., Nihei, H., Sugino, N., Nagai, R. Nippon Jinzo Gakkai shi. (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Innervation regulates myosin heavy chain isoform expression in developing skeletal muscle fibers. Lefeuvre, B., Crossin, F., Fontaine-Pérus, J., Bandman, E., Gardahaut, M.F. Mech. Dev. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Pulmonary expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and myosin isoforms in rats with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Okazaki, T., Sharma, H.S., Aikawa, M., Yamataka, A., Nagai, R., Miyano, T., Tibboel, D. J. Pediatr. Surg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunohistochemical studies on expression of human vascular smooth muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms in normal mammary glands, benign mammary disorders and mammary carcinomas. Ohyabu, I., Takasaki, T., Akiba, S., Nomura, S., Enokizono, N., Sagara, Y., Hiroi, J., Nagai, R., Yoshida, H. Pathol. Int. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. C-terminal isoforms of the myosin heavy chain and smooth muscle function. Martin, A.F., Bhatti, S., Paul, R.J. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Endogenous retinoic acid signaling colocalizes with advanced expression of the adult smooth muscle myosin heavy chain isoform during development of the ductus arteriosus. Colbert, M.C., Kirby, M.L., Robbins, J. Circ. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Diversity and variability of smooth muscle phenotypes of renal arterioles as revealed by myosin isoform expression. Kimura, K., Nagai, R., Sakai, T., Aikawa, M., Kuro-o, M., Kobayashi, N., Shirato, I., Inagami, T., Oshi, M., Suzuki, N. Kidney Int. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Malignant rhabdoid-tumor cell line showing neural and smooth-muscle-cell phenotypes. Sugimoto, T., Hosoi, H., Horii, Y., Ishida, H., Mine, H., Takahashi, K., Abe, T., Ohta, S., Sawada, T. Int. J. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of sex and estrogen on myosin COOH-terminal isoforms and contractility in rat aorta. Paul, R.J., Bowman, P.S., Johnson, J., Martin, A.F. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  17. Cheese pH, protein concentration, and formation of calcium lactate crystals. Agarwal, S., Powers, J.R., Swanson, B.G., Chen, S., Clark, S. J. Dairy Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Modulation of the differentiation status of cultured prostatic smooth muscle cells by an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Boesch, S.T., Corvin, S., Zhang, J., Rogatsch, H., Bartsch, G., Klocker, H. Prostate (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Effect of androgens and their manipulation on cell growth and androgen receptor (AR) levels in AR-positive and -negative human hepatocellular carcinomas. Yu, L., Nagasue, N., Makino, Y., Nakamura, T. J. Hepatol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Myosin heavy chain isoforms and smooth muscle function. Paul, R.J., Hewett, T.E., Martin, A.F. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Enhanced embryonic nonmuscle myosin heavy chain isoform and matrix metalloproteinase expression in aortic abdominal aneurysm with rapid progression. Kamijima, T., Isobe, M., Suzuki, J., Fukui, D., Arai, M., Urayama, H., Nishimaki, K., Sekiguchi, M., Kawasaki, S. Cardiovascular pathology : the official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Expression of myosin isoforms in the smooth muscle of human corpus cavernosum. Koi, P.T., Milhoua, P.M., Monrose, V., Melman, A., Disanto, M.E. Int. J. Impot. Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  23. Expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms by smooth muscle cells in cerebral arteriovenous malformations. Hoya, K., Asai, A., Sasaki, T., Nagata, K., Kimura, K., Kirino, T. Acta Neuropathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Induction of smooth muscle cells in the fibrous capsule of human hepatocellular carcinoma but not in the septa of hepatic cirrhosis. Kojima, A., Kaneda, K., Ueda, M., Maki, A., Takabayashi, A., Fukushima, S., Sakurai, M., Nagai, R., Matsui-Yuasa, I. Virchows Arch. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis levels in human leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma. Valenti, M.T., Azzarello, G., Vinante, O., Manconi, R., Balducci, E., Guidolin, D., Chiavegato, A., Sartore, S. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Transforming growth factor-beta1 regulates cell growth and causes downregulation of SMemb/non-muscle myosin heavy chain B mRNA in human prostate stromal cells. Obara, K., Bilim, V., Suzuki, K., Kobayashi, K., Hara, N., Kasahara, T., Nishiyama, T., Takahashi, K. Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Neuroblastoma cell lines showing smooth muscle cell phenotypes. Sugimoto, T., Mine, H., Horii, Y., Takahashi, K., Nagai, R., Morishita, R., Komada, M., Asada, Y., Sawada, T. Diagn. Mol. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of castration and androgen replacement on tumour growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice. Yu, L., Nagasue, N., Yamaguchi, M., Chang, Y.C. J. Hepatol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Mechanisms of membrane protein insertion into liposomes during reconstitution procedures involving the use of detergents. 2. Incorporation of the light-driven proton pump bacteriorhodopsin. Rigaud, J.L., Paternostre, M.T., Bluzat, A. Biochemistry (1988) [Pubmed]
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