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Gene Review

PPP3R1  -  protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CALNB1, CNA2, CNB, CNB1, Calcineurin subunit B type 1, ...
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Disease relevance of PPP3R1

  • Identification of a novel 5-base pair deletion in calcineurin B (PPP3R1) promoter region and its association with left ventricular hypertrophy [1].
  • In this study, a novel deaminase was purified from Comamonas strain CNB-1, and the gene (cnbZ) encoding this enzyme was cloned [2].
  • Percutaneous CT-guided CNB of mediastinal lymphoma is a quick, safe, accurate, and efficient alternative to open biopsy in the evaluation of mediastinal lymphoma, mainly at presentation [3].
  • By studying which radiological examinations had been performed before breast cancer operations the aim was to assess, how much benefit ultrasonography (US) and fine or core needle biopsy (FNAB, CNB) gave in addition to mammography, and whether the sensitivity of these examinations varied with the age of the patient [4].
  • The subjects were divided according to the severity into: CNB (chronic nonobstructive bronchitis)-->COPDT1 (mild)-->COPD2 (moderate)-->CCCP-->CDCP (serious COPD with compensative and decompensative cor pulmonale respectively) [5].

High impact information on PPP3R1

  • Candida albicans mutants lacking calcineurin B (cnb1/cnb1) were found to be viable and markedly hypersensitive to fluconazole or membrane perturbation with SDS [6].
  • In contrast, we found that the regulatory CNB subunit appears to play an obligatory role in this interaction and have defined an amino acid sequence of the CNA subunit which forms the binding site for CNB [7].
  • CN is comprised of two subunits: a 59-kDa catalytic subunit (CNA), which contains a calmodulin binding domain and autoinhibitory region, and a 19-kDa intrinsic calcium binding regulatory subunit (CNB) [7].
  • Several hypotheses, mainly Optimal Defense (OD), Carbon: Nutrient Balance (CNB), Growth Rate (GR), and Growth-Differentiation Balance (GDB), have individually served as frameworks for investigating the patterns of plant defense against herbivores, in particular the pattern of constitutive defense [8].
  • Comamonas sp. strain CNB-1 degrades nitrobenzene and chloronitrobenzene via the intermediates 2-aminomuconate and 2-amino-5-chloromuconate, respectively [2].

Chemical compound and disease context of PPP3R1


Biological context of PPP3R1

  • Calcineurin B (PPP3R1) is located on human chromosome 2p16-->p15 and calcineurin A beta (PPP3CB, previous gene symbol CALNB) is present on 10q21-->q22 [10].
  • The present study reports the intron-exon structure of the PPP3R1 gene with the proximal intronic sequences, its genetic mapping to D25358-D251778 on chromosome 2p15, and its exclusion in a genetic disorder mapped proximal to this locus [11].
  • Calcineurin is a protein phosphatase with an important role in signal transduction; its calcium-binding regulatory subunit, calcineurin B, is widely present in the brain and is coded by the PPP3R1 gene which was mapped recently to human chromosome 2 [11].
  • The crystal structure of the holoenzyme reveals that the N-terminus and C-terminus of CNB and the N-terminus of CNA each have a long arm not involved in the active site [12].
  • Mutants lacking the calcineurin catalytic (Cna1) or regulatory (Cnb1) subunit fail to grow at elevated temperature and are defective in virulence and hyphal elongation [13].

Anatomical context of PPP3R1


Associations of PPP3R1 with chemical compounds

  • Calcineurin A alpha (PPP3CA), calcineurin A beta (PPP3CB) and calcineurin B (PPP3R1) are located on human chromosomes 4, 10q21-->q22 and 2p16-->p15 respectively [10].
  • We constructed a fusion of the genes of CaM, CNB and CNA in that order using linker primers containing six and ten codons of glycine [12].
  • Calcineurin (CN), a Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase, is a heterodimer composed of a catalytic subunit (CNA) and a regulatory subunit (CNB) [12].
  • Gnotobiotic and outdoor experiments showed that pollutant 4CNB was completely removed within 1 or 2 days after 4CNB application into soil, and that its phytotoxicity to alfalfa was eliminated by inoculation of strain CNB-1 [15].
  • Determination of strain CNB-1 populations by cultivation method and by quantitative competitive PCR technique targeting the chloronitrobenzene nitroreductase gene showed that the population of strain CNB-1 in the rhizosphere was about 10-100 times higher than that in the bulk soil [15].

Regulatory relationships of PPP3R1

  • We found that mutation of Glu53 greatly reduced its responsiveness to CNB in the phosphatase assay and also that mutation of Lys134 of CNB affected its ability to activate the phosphatase activity of CNA [16].

Other interactions of PPP3R1

  • PPP3R has two isoforms, PPP3R1 (also known as PP2Bbeta1) and PPP3R2 (also known as PP2BB2) [14].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PPP3R1

  • The results of Southern blotting experiments are compatible with the existence of multiple genes for CNA and a single gene for CNB [17].
  • Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that strain CNB-1 successfully colonized alfalfa roots [15].
  • Of the 210 total patients in whom a CNB was performed, needle biopsy pathologic findings included:fibroadenoma, 57 patients; fibrocystic breast change, 82 patients; carcinoma, 53 patients; abscess/cyst, 12 patients; and other, 6 patients [18].
  • Ultrasonography and mammography demonstrated nonspecific findings, and FNA and CNB did not establish a diagnosis [19].
  • The results of the heart transplantation operations performed personally by one surgeon (CNB) at Groote Schuur Hospital between 1967 and 1980 are reviewed [20].


  1. Identification of a novel 5-base pair deletion in calcineurin B (PPP3R1) promoter region and its association with left ventricular hypertrophy. Tang, W., Arnett, D.K., Devereux, R.B., Panagiotou, D., Province, M.A., Miller, M.B., de Simone, G., Gu, C., Ferrell, R.E. Am. Heart J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. A Novel Deaminase Involved in Chloronitrobenzene and Nitrobenzene Degradation with Comamonas sp. Strain CNB-1. Liu, L., Wu, J.F., Ma, Y.F., Wang, S.Y., Zhao, G.P., Liu, S.J. J. Bacteriol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  3. CT-guided core-needle biopsy in the diagnosis of mediastinal lymphoma. Sklair-Levy, M., Polliack, A., Shaham, D., Applbaum, Y.H., Gillis, S., Ben-Yehuda, D., Sherman, Y., Libson, E. European radiology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Validity of radiological examinations of patients with breast cancer in different age groups in a population based study. Saarenmaa, I., Salminen, T., Geiger, U., Heikkinen, P., Hyvärinen, S., Isola, J., Kataja, V., Kokko, M.L., Kokko, R., Kumpulainen, E., Kärkkäinen, A., Pakkanen, J., Peltonen, P., Piironen, A., Salo, A., Talviala, M.L., Hakama, M. Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Disorders of sex hormone status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Makarevich, A.E. Wiad. Lek. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Calcineurin is essential for survival during membrane stress in Candida albicans. Cruz, M.C., Goldstein, A.L., Blankenship, J.R., Del Poeta, M., Davis, D., Cardenas, M.E., Perfect, J.R., McCusker, J.H., Heitman, J. EMBO J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular analysis of the interaction of calcineurin with drug-immunophilin complexes. Clipstone, N.A., Fiorentino, D.F., Crabtree, G.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Out of the quagmire of plant defense hypotheses. Stamp, N. The Quarterly review of biology. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Novel partial reductive pathway for 4-chloronitrobenzene and nitrobenzene degradation in Comamonas sp. strain CNB-1. Wu, J.F., Jiang, C.Y., Wang, B.J., Ma, Y.F., Liu, Z.P., Liu, S.J. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Calcineurin A alpha (PPP3CA), calcineurin A beta (PPP3CB) and calcineurin B (PPP3R1) are located on human chromosomes 4, 10q21-->q22 and 2p16-->p15 respectively. Wang, M.G., Yi, H., Guerini, D., Klee, C.B., McBride, O.W. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. Structure of the gene coding for calcineurin B (PPP3R1) and mapping to D2S358-D2S1778 (chromosomal region 2p15). Stratakis, C.A., Taymans, S.E. DNA Seq. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Preparation and characterization of a single-chain calcineurin-calmodulin complex. Qin, Y., Liu, J., Li, X., Wei, Q. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Phospholipid-binding protein Cts1 controls septation and functions coordinately with calcineurin in Cryptococcus neoformans. Fox, D.S., Cox, G.M., Heitman, J. Eukaryotic Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of a human regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 3 gene (PPP3RL) expressed specifically in testis. Liu, L., Zhang, J., Yuan, J., Dang, Y., Yang, C., Chen, X., Xu, J., Yu, L. Mol. Biol. Rep. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Plant-microbe association for rhizoremediation of chloronitroaromatic pollutants with Comamonas sp. strain CNB-1. Liu, L., Jiang, C.Y., Liu, X.Y., Wu, J.F., Han, J.G., Liu, S.J. Environ. Microbiol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  16. The salt bridge of calcineurin is important for transferring the effect of CNB binding to CNA. Hou, Q., Yi, X., Jiang, G., Wei, Q. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Molecular cloning of Schistosoma mansoni calcineurin subunits and immunolocalization to the excretory system. Mecozzi, B., Rossi, A., Lazzaretti, P., Kady, M., Kaiser, S., Valle, C., Cioli, D., Klinkert, M.Q. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of the breast. Staren, E.D., O'Neill, T.P. Surgery (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. A Case of Nodular Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia (PASH). Okoshi, K., Ogawa, H., Suwa, H., Saiga, T., Kobayashi, H. Breast Cancer (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. Clinical transplantation of the heart: a review of 13 years' personal experience. Barnard, C.N., Cooper, D.K. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. (1981) [Pubmed]
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