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Gene Review

PPP3CA  -  protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit,...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CALN, CALNA, CALNA1, CAM-PRP catalytic subunit, CCN1, ...
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Disease relevance of PPP3CA

  • In order to determine which domain(s) in CN is functionally regulated by metal ions, the rat CNA alpha subunit and its catalytic domain (CNa) were cloned and expressed in E. coli [1].
  • The extremely high RRs for the co-occurrence of Kaposi's sarcoma and CNA lymphoma in men during the AIDS era suggests that the association of these malignancies occurs within the same HIV-infected individuals [2].
  • The prevalence of pharyngeal carriage of group B streptococci was evaluated in patients with and without the complaint of a sore throat by three methods (blood agar plates, Columbia CNA agar plates, and a selective enrichment broth containing gentamicin and nalidixic acid) [3].
  • Since CNA cannot be easily excreted in the urine of patients with renal insufficiency it is hypothesized that this compound back diffuses into the plasma [4].
  • We performed simultaneous multifiber recording of sympathetic nerve activity to the kidney (RNA), heart (CNA), spleen (SpNA), liver (HNA), and hind-limb (LNA) during sustained hemorrhagic hypotension at a mean blood pressure of 40 mmHg for 2 h [5].

Psychiatry related information on PPP3CA

  • A surprising result was the lack of accurate, comprehensive information in CNA texts and classrooms about dysphagia and how to manage challenging feeding behaviors [6].

High impact information on PPP3CA

  • The results indicate that periodic administration on intrathecal methotrexate with no CNA irradiation, plus intensive systemic chemotherapy, can effectively control CNA leukemia and prolong the duration of complete remissions [7].
  • In contrast, we found that the regulatory CNB subunit appears to play an obligatory role in this interaction and have defined an amino acid sequence of the CNA subunit which forms the binding site for CNB [8].
  • CN is comprised of two subunits: a 59-kDa catalytic subunit (CNA), which contains a calmodulin binding domain and autoinhibitory region, and a 19-kDa intrinsic calcium binding regulatory subunit (CNB) [8].
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results provide, for the first time, direct evidence that the virulence of CNA depends on its collagen-binding ability [9].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The measurement of CNA may be of help in following the effect on the immune system of CNI treatments, even in combined therapies, but does not reflect the additional effect of MMF [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of PPP3CA

  • Renal clearances of inulin (GFR), para-amino hippurate (ERPF), sodium (CNA), osmoles (COsm), and free water (CH2O) were measured in milliliters per minute before and after the intravenous infusion of furosemide (0.5 mg. per kilogram of body weight) [11].
  • Columbia CNA agar, a selective medium for gram-positive cocci, was supplemented with glutathione and lead acetate (P. micros medium: PMM) [12].
  • Laboratory tests examined the effects of salinity on NA toxicity using local young-of-the-year yellow perch exposed to a commercially available mixture of NAs (CNA) and an NA mixture that was extracted from oil sands process-affected water (ENA), with and without the addition of sodium sulfate (Na(2)SO(4)) [13].

Biological context of PPP3CA

  • We confirm the localization of calcineurin A alpha (PPP3CA, previous gene symbol CALNA) to chromosome 4 without regional localization [14].
  • Calcineurin A alpha (PPP3CA), calcineurin A beta (PPP3CB) and calcineurin B (PPP3R1) are located on human chromosomes 4, 10q21-->q22 and 2p16-->p15 respectively [14].
  • Although necessary, the CNB subunit per se is not sufficient to mediate an interaction with drug-immunophilin complexes; amino acid residues of the CNA subunit, specifically a region located within the putative catalytic domain, are also required for the interaction of CN with both FKBP-FK506 and cyclophilin A-CsA [8].
  • Single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of cDNAs derived from the coding region for amino acids 281-414 of CNA1 and CNA2 in 32 healthy Caucasians did not detect polymorphic variations within these genes [15].
  • Mutants lacking the calcineurin catalytic (Cna1) or regulatory (Cnb1) subunit fail to grow at elevated temperature and are defective in virulence and hyphal elongation [16].

Anatomical context of PPP3CA

  • By activating Wnt, NF-kappaB, or tyrosine kinase signaling pathways, CCN1/Cyr61 is not only able to control the growth of epithelial cells and fibroblasts, but also induce or suppress apoptosis in a cell type-specific manner [17].
  • There is no question that protocols for any phase of emergency management of central nervous system (CNA) trauma are of no values unless there is a high degree of compliance [18].
  • A high incidence of congenital hip dislocatiom, arthrogryposis, congenital hypoplasia of tibia and CNA disorders was noted as associated abnormalities [19].

Associations of PPP3CA with chemical compounds

  • The region of CNA that interacts with Calcineurin B, calmodulin, and immunosuppressive drugs bound to their receptors--the immunophilins--has been identified to amino acids 281-414 (Greengard P, Allen PB, Nairin AC. Beyond the dopamine receptor: the DARPP-32/protein phosphatase-1 cascade. Neuron 1999;23:435) [15].
  • We constructed a fusion of the genes of CaM, CNB and CNA in that order using linker primers containing six and ten codons of glycine [20].
  • Calcineurin (CN), a Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase, is a heterodimer composed of a catalytic subunit (CNA) and a regulatory subunit (CNB) [20].
  • Rlk medium consists of Columbia CNA agar supplemented with peptone, yeast extract, 5% laked rabbit or sheep blood, nalidixic acid, and tinidazole [21].
  • The development of such a hydrophobic environment at the recognition site introduces a striking conformation change in Ile-107 by rotating its side chain about C(alpha)--C(beta) bond by 180 degrees to bring about the delta-methyl group within the range of attractive van der Waals interactions with the methyl group of CCN1 [22].

Regulatory relationships of PPP3CA

  • We found that mutation of Glu53 greatly reduced its responsiveness to CNB in the phosphatase assay and also that mutation of Lys134 of CNB affected its ability to activate the phosphatase activity of CNA [23].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PPP3CA

  • The results of Southern blotting experiments are compatible with the existence of multiple genes for CNA and a single gene for CNB [24].
  • Problems encountered with currently recommended selective media for group B streptococci (GBS) (selective broth medium and CNA agar) prompted a searach for alternative culture methods in ongoing epidemiological studies [25].
  • Plasma and urine concentration of NA and of its 7-hydroxy (HNA) and 7-carboxy (CNA) derivatives were measured after a single oral administration [4].
  • Following an extensive purification, including HPGPC and reverse-phase HPLC, the CDC-like hormone contained in the T. tessulatum CNA was isolated [26].
  • RESULTS: Forty-one charts were found to include a complete pain assessment performed by the RN, CNA, and PCC [27].


  1. Effect of metal ions on the activity of the catalytic domain of calcineurin. Ping, L., Ke, Z., Benqiong, X., Qun, W. Biometals (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. High risk of Kaposi's sarcoma and central nervous system lymphoma in the same individuals: a finding related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ahsan, H., Neugut, A.I. Int. J. Cancer (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Pharyngeal carriage of group B streptococci: detection by three methods. Ferrieri, P., Blair, L.L. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Nalidixic acid kinetics in renal insufficiency. Cuisinaud, G., Ferry, N., Pozet, N., Zech, P.Y., Sassard, J. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Changes in tissue blood flow and sympathetic activities to various organs during prolonged hemorrhagic hypotension in monkeys. Tanaka, S., Matsuda, Y., Shibamoto, T., Wang, H.G. J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. What do certified nurse assistants actually know about dysphagia and feeding nursing home residents? Pelletier, C.A. American journal of speech-language pathology / American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childreq with "prophylactic" intrathecal methotrexate and intensive systemic chemotherapy. Haghbin, M., Tan, C.T., Clarkson, B.D., Miké, V., Burchenal, J.H., Murphy, M.L. Cancer Res. (1975) [Pubmed]
  8. Molecular analysis of the interaction of calcineurin with drug-immunophilin complexes. Clipstone, N.A., Fiorentino, D.F., Crabtree, G.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  9. Virulence potential of the staphylococcal adhesin CNA in experimental arthritis is determined by its affinity for collagen. Xu, Y., Rivas, J.M., Brown, E.L., Liang, X., Höök, M. J. Infect. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Pharmacodynamic approach to immunosuppressive therapies using calcineurin inhibitors and mycophenolate mofetil. Millán, O., Brunet, M., Campistol, J.M., Faura, A., Rojo, I., Vidal, E., Jiménez, O., Vives, J., Oppenheimer, F., Martorell, J. Clin. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Renal hemodynamic response to furosemide in septic and injured patients. Bradley, V.E., Shier, M.R., Lucas, C.E., Rosenberg, I.K. Surgery (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Development and evaluation of a selective and differential medium for the primary isolation of Peptostreptococcus micros. Turng, B.F., Guthmiller, J.M., Minah, G.E., Falkler, W.A. Oral Microbiol. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. The effects of salinity on naphthenic acid toxicity to yellow perch: Gill and liver histopathology. Nero, V., Farwell, A., Lee, L.E., Van Meer, T., Mackinnon, M.D., Dixon, D.G. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Calcineurin A alpha (PPP3CA), calcineurin A beta (PPP3CB) and calcineurin B (PPP3R1) are located on human chromosomes 4, 10q21-->q22 and 2p16-->p15 respectively. Wang, M.G., Yi, H., Guerini, D., Klee, C.B., McBride, O.W. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Genetic conservation of the immunophilin-binding domains of human calcineurin A1 and A2. Brogan, I.J., Pravica, V., Hutchinson, I.V. Transpl. Immunol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Phospholipid-binding protein Cts1 controls septation and functions coordinately with calcineurin in Cryptococcus neoformans. Fox, D.S., Cox, G.M., Heitman, J. Eukaryotic Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Functional properties and intracellular signaling of CCN1/Cyr61. Chen, Y., Du, X.Y. J. Cell. Biochem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  18. Emergency management of head injuries. Rimel, R.W., Jane, J.A., Tyson, G.W. Resuscitation. (1981) [Pubmed]
  19. Congenital vertical talus and its familial occurrence: an analysis of 36 patients. Ogata, K., Schoenecker, P.L., Sheridan, J. Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  20. Preparation and characterization of a single-chain calcineurin-calmodulin complex. Qin, Y., Liu, J., Li, X., Wei, Q. Biochim. Biophys. Acta (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Isolation of Mobiluncus species from clinical specimens by using cold enrichment and selective media. Smith, H.J., Moore, H.B. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  22. Enhancement of catalytic efficiency of enzymes through exposure to anhydrous organic solvent at 70 degrees C. Three-dimensional structure of a treated serine proteinase at 2.2 A resolution. Gupta, M.N., Tyagi, R., Sharma, S., Karthikeyan, S., Singh, T.P. Proteins (2000) [Pubmed]
  23. The salt bridge of calcineurin is important for transferring the effect of CNB binding to CNA. Hou, Q., Yi, X., Jiang, G., Wei, Q. FEBS Lett. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular cloning of Schistosoma mansoni calcineurin subunits and immunolocalization to the excretory system. Mecozzi, B., Rossi, A., Lazzaretti, P., Kady, M., Kaiser, S., Valle, C., Cioli, D., Klinkert, M.Q. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Laboratory and field evaluation of selective media for isolation of group B streptococci. Gray, B.M., Pass, M.A., Dillon, H.C. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. Leech egg-laying-like hormone: structure, neuronal distribution and phylogeny. Salzet, M., Verger-Bocquet, M., Vandenbulcke, F., Van Minnen, J. Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Pain intensity assessment by bedside nurses and palliative care consultants: a retrospective study. Bruera, E., Willey, J.S., Ewert-Flannagan, P.A., Cline, M.K., Kaur, G., Shen, L., Zhang, T., Palmer, J.L. Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. (2005) [Pubmed]
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